Saturday, December 8, 2012

Depression


Depression is a disease of modern times

What is depression?

We are all sad from time to time. Grief is an important part of our lives. It helps us understand our inner world, to understand other people, enriches us and gives our lives meaning. 'Normal' sadness comes with the inevitable losses and frustrations of everyday life. Opposite her, those factors that characterize depression as a disease are: severity, duration and degree of disability that the depression can cause.

Depression ranges from mild to those who life threat. Some mild episodes of depression can not be resolved over time, changing lifestyle or seeking support from those close to him.
However, depression is a serious disease that paralyzes and strongly influences how you feel, how you think and ultimately how you behave. Depression without proper treatment can last for years and can cause permanent disability. It was painful and difficult and stressful disorder can be overcome without outside help. No 'prisabiranje', determination, positive self-talk, love and support they can then just lift the veil of depression. Such a depression is a disease and it requires treatment.
Each person experiences depression in their own way. Regardless, here on these signs or symptoms that people commonly complain about, which is why they are used in the diagnosis of depression.


Common signs and symptoms

Physical problems
• Change of appetite - that results in loss or weight gain.
• Eating during sleep - difficulty falling asleep, interrupted sleep or oversleeping.
• San, if any, is not invigorating. Feel worse in the morning than in the evening.
• Reduced energy with a sense of weakness and physical fatigue.
• Some people feel agitation, anxiety, and feeling the need to be constantly moving.
• The phantom pains, headaches, muscle aches, no clear physical cause.
• Eating in digestion - constipation.
• Changes in thinking
• I have slowed down, thinking, concentration and memory are difficult.
• Decision-making is a difficult and often avoided.
• obsessive ruminations, and the inevitable sense of impending disaster.
• Preobuzetost own mistakes or faults.
• A rough self-criticism of excessive and unreasonable self-judgment.
• In some extreme cases, it may be losing touch with reality, hearing voices (hallucinations) or they may have weird fiction or delusions.
• Constant thoughts of death, suicide or self-harm intent on.
• Changes in feelings
• Loss of interest in activities that were previously a source of pleasure.
• Decreased interest in and enjoyment of sex.
• Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness, guilt and strong.
• blunting or absence of feeling.
• A sense of impending major disaster.
• Loss of self-esteem.
• Feelings of sadness, feeling like "being on the bottom."
• Unexplained crying ikakavog no apparent reason.
• Irritability, impatience, anger and aggressive feelings.
• Changes in behavior
• Withdrawal from socially-owned, business and entertainment activities.
• Avoid making.
• Neglecting obligations such as chores around the house, paying the bills.
• Reduction of physical activity and exercise.
• Reduced self-care, which is reflected in the food and personal hygiene.
• Increased use alokohola, the medicines prescribed by the physician or by the women on their own initiative, as well as street drugs.

If you or someone you love feel the symptoms of depression every day, and so for more than two weeks, seek medical attention immediately. It is important not to try to establish the diagnosis itself or wait for depression goes away on its own. A careful medical examination is extremely important to rule out other potential causes for how you feel, in order to set the correct diagnosis and treatment began with a program that will help you to feel better.
The good news I think most people who are treated for depression experience a full recovery. The earlier start to treatment - that the recovery will be faster and more complete. Without treatment, symptoms can last for months or even years, and the risk of a repeat episode is greater. There is no way to predict how long it will last episodes.
What is known is that 15% of people who suffer from depression take their own life. This fact shows that the mortality rate of depression is higher than cancer or heart disease. Depression is a disease that should be treated with the same degree of seriousness and urgency with which to treat other diseases dangerous to human life.

What causes depression?

I still do not know for sure what causes depression. However, research shows that most likely there is more than one cause of disease and that the combination of these various factors which a person more susceptible to the development of depressive disorders. One theory says that the more factors combine, the risk of developing a depressive disorder becomes larger.
Some of the known factors that contribute to depression include:
• Genetic factors - in families that depression is more likely to occur.
• Medical research proves that people with depression comes to the chemical imbalance neurotransmitters-Miter, important "messengers" in the brain.
• Difficult childhood survival with physical or emotional abuse, trauma or loss of parents is linked to higher rates of depression.
• Women are twice as sensitive and prone to depression than men, which may be related to the menstrual cycle, childbirth or menopause, suggesting that hormones may play a role in the development of the disease.
• There is a period in life in which the pressures of the family or at work, and in which most people are more susceptible to depression.
• Depression may follow large losses such as loss of loved ones, sudden job loss or retirement.
• Depression I am also related to chronic somatic disease or disability.
• Personality traits also play an important role in the occurrence of depression. Those who are pessimistic and negative in interpreting life events, less adaptable to change, perfectionist, and lacking support of the environment are at greater risk of developing depression.
• Some medications and street drugs are also known to cause depression by disturbing the balance of important brain neurotransmitters (substances that act as' carriers of messages in the brain).
• Depression is more common in those with low incomes, the unemployed, unmarried / divorced or unmarried.
• Alcohol is known as a central nervous system depressant and prolonged abuse of alcohol is linked to a higher risk of depression.


Who gets depression?

Depression is a disease that can sicken anyone. People of all ages, all social, economic, professional, cultural or religious groups may develop depression. The peculiarity of depression is a huge feeling of isolation that it causes. Feeling 'lonely' can lead to feelings of shame or a feeling that you are somehow 'different' from others.
The prevalence of depression in the population
• 3% of men and 6% of women of a western population suffer from mood disorders each year.
• During his life, about 5-12% of men and 10-25% of women will experience at least one depressive episode.
• Women are two times more common serious depressive disorder than men.
• 20% of patients in primary care have symptoms of depression. Condition more than half of these patients go unnoticed.
• Anxiety and depression make up 79% of all psychiatric diagnoses.
• The World Health Organization predicts that by 2020. The depression will be the second disease after heart disease that causes disability.
Mood disorders and suicide
• People suffering from depression commit 80% of all suicides.
• 15% of people who have significant depressive disorder commit suicide.
• Thoughts of suicide are so common in people with a mood disorder that is considered to be one of the symptoms of the disease.
• According to statistics, women are 3-4 times more likely to attempt suicide than men, but men make it more often, probably because they choose more lethal methods in these efforts.
• According to statistics, men attempt suicide during the previous depressive episodes, while women do so later in the course of a depressive episode.
• It has been shown that 50-80% of elderly patients who commit suicide had a serious depressive disorder.


And recurrent episodes of depression

Ponovljenja episode is a common feature of depression.
Without adequate treatment, 50-60% of patients who had an episode of depression can expect to be told and the other episodes in the first year after the onset of the first episode.
For many first repeat episodes indicates the beginning of an exhausting cycle of episodes leading to disability, which in 25% of cases leads to chronic depression.

Genetics of Depression

Depression is somewhat transferred Legacy - 1.5-3 times more common in people in direct kinship with people who suffer from mood disorders than the general population.
In children, persons with depression, feelings of lack of concentration or occurrence of hyperactive disorders are more common than in the general population.
Mood disorders are successfully treated, but often are not diagnosed.
80-90% of cases of depression can be successfully treated. However, because of the shame associated with the recognition of emotional difficulties, only one third of people with this disorder seek professional help.
29% of patients with mood disorders reported that it took them over 10 years to get a correct diagnosis. 60% of patients were given a completely wrong diagnosis before they established correct.
There is a need for better recognition of mood disorders, even with medical personnel (doctors).According to some studies completed more than seven years since the first patients to see a doctor once they set a correct diagnosis.


How is the diagnosis of depression

Currently there are no lab tests or X-rays that could assist in the diagnosis of depression-forging.Instead, the doctor will ask questions and observe your behavior in order to diagnose the disease.Many people visit a general practitioner, who later referred to a specialist psychiatrist. They will ask for symptoms: How do you feel, if there are changes in sleep, changes in terms of interest in sex, changes in weight and how you function at home and at work. The doctor will ask you if you feel the symptoms of the disease and whether it was in the recent past events that may have contributed to feel sadness - such as recent loss of loved ones, stress or crisis. The doctor will also examine the earlier episodes of illness or investigate your family 'history', it asks about possible trauma, mental illness in the family, or abuse alcohol or drugs.
Depression can occur as a result of some other physical (somatic) disease. These circumstances should be examined by medical examinations. In such cases, if the primary disease is cured, depression that follows is usually resolved. Depression can be a result of taking certain medications that treat the symptoms of some other diseases. Therefore, it is important that your doctor knows about all the medications you are taking. It is known that street drugs (cocaine, marijuana) or steroids can lead to mood disorders and to stop taking these substances may improve mood.
Your task is to give your doctor all the information they need to set the correct diagnosis of the disease. Talk about lack of interest in sex can be uncomfortable, but it is important to establish the correct diagnosis. Through careful monitoring of medical history may identify some important risk factors, and may be seen with regularity by which the disease occurs, which could then help determine what happened and what should be done.
Large (major) depression, depressive disorder, unipolar depression, affective disorders are different names that describe the same disorder. These are some of the ways in which doctors classify depression, which changed over time.




How is depression treated?

Because of the many different factors that influence depression is a treatable illness many different methods. Research shows that a combination therapy that she could provide the best results.
In the treatment of depression, the most common are the following therapeutic methods.
Medications - There are many different types of antidepressants and mood stabilizers which have been found to effectively influence the treatment of diseases. The doctor will work with you in selecting the remedy for that is most likely to eliminate your symptoms. Sometimes it takes several attempts to find a drug therapy that has najefkasnija for your case.
It usually takes two to six weeks to feel the positive changes, when a drug reaches its therapeutic level. Research shows that constant medication 4-9 months after the depression completely withdrawn reduces the risk of recurrence in the future. For persons who were more episodes of depression may be recommended constantly taking medications to preventively protect against the recurrence of the disease.
Therapy support - support therapy is an important part of the healing process. Understanding and accepting your illness, looking back to the factors that may contribute to disease development, and developing strategies to cope with life's challenges can develop your strength and help you to heal.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a specific therapy through discussion, to help you understand how your thoughts affect your feelings and how your feelings affect your behavior. Research shows that this type of therapy can help in the prevention of re-depressive episodes.
Support people with similar problems Potrvđeno to learn about your disorder and get information about how other people struggle with their disease may have a positive effect on the healing and the prevention of repeated episodes.
Hospitalization is sometimes necessary to go to the hospital for treatment, especially when the feelings or thoughts of suicide, threatening to move into action when there are complicated medical conditions to treat or when you lack support at home.


How can I help myself feel better?

There are important things you can do to enhance your healing.

SUPPORT YOUR THERAPY

Be patient with yourself. It takes time to get better. You can not force yourself to be a better you!
Be a partner with your doctor. Confident and honest relationship with your doctor is very important for a good recovery.
Take your medicine as you have been prescribed. Antidepressants take several weeks to achieve their full effect. People around you will see positive changes in your mood before you experience them yourself.
Constantly Notify your doctor about how you feel, whether a change in habits - sleep, appetite, mood ... how the doctor could not assess what effect has the treatment you prescribed and whether it should be changed.
Always sign your doctor if you have problems with drug side effects and never alter your medication without first consulting your doctor. Many drug side effects disappear with time, while others can be reduced by additional therapy. In any case, the side effects of drug therapy requires a change and therefore it is necessary to discuss them with your doctor.
If a premature stop treating the symptoms of depression are not immediately returned. If you are thinking about suicide is one of the symptoms of your depression, then you should be very careful if you change treatment without detailed consultation with your doctor.

Take care of yourself

"I do not have too much alone, too hungry, too tired or too hot."
Remind yourself every day: "It's not my fault ... depression is a disease ... I am / herself ... I will be better".
Surround yourself with people who care about you. They will boost your sense of self worth and goodness. Avoid people who are critical of you, that you assess or require too much. When you're depressed, you're missing 'protective layer' that helps you easily handle criticism.
Join one of the self-help group where you can get support from people who understand what you go through, you learn more about your condition and other strategies that apply to make them feel better. Research shows that self-help groups as a useful addition to medical therapy.
Prepare yourself by learning as much as you can about mood disorders and treatment modalities.Encourage your family to do the same thing. It will help you understand what is happening, to make decisions about your treatment substantiated information to 'normalize' their experience, learn to recognize depression in the early stages.
Eat well! When you're depressed, you can not rely on their sense of hunger. Try to eat regular meals, healthy, all day, even when you are not hungry! Learning how to take care of yourself is important for it to stay well when you become good.
Drink water! Water will help you avoid dry mouth, one of the most common adverse drug side-result, and the water not fattening as do all sweetened drinks. Unexpected and unwanted obesity is one of the most common reasons why people stop taking antidepressants.
Exercise daily. Research suggests the value of moderate physical activity in the healing process and to stay in a good condition after recovery. Start with short walks, especially in the morning when depression is usually most pronounced and later proceed with a longer and more intense walking exercises. Exercise increases the level of some important neurotransmitters in the brain (endorphins), whose level is decreased in depression. Choose a comfortable path for exercise and pay attention to the visual and sensory effects of beauty around you. Moving the focus from heavy thinking of something different will help you to relax your mind. Bring with you Friend or relative.Exercising in society contributes to greater dedication to the task.
Stop or avoid alcohol, street drugs and medicines neprepisanih. Alcohol and street drugs behave as depression of the central nervous system which can lead to worsening of symptoms of depression.Reduce your intake of caffeine (coffee, tea, cola, chocolate, etc..) Because it can cause anxiety and disrupt sleep.
Restore order in their sleep. Avoid sleeping during the day. Establish a good bedtime habits such as for example a relaxing swim in the warm water, listening to music and so on. Avoid intense exercise before bedtime. Leave your bedroom for sleeping and resting. News listen better during the day than at bedtime if you disturb their content. Try to avoid stimulating activities or disturbing movies before going to bed.
Try not to make important life decisions before they leave the crisis. Depression affects the way your judgment and you may later regret decisions. If you have to make an important decision
Ask a trusted friend, relative or colleague to help you.
Do not expect too much of yourself at work or at home. Allow yourself and negligence. Striving for perfection and attempt to achieve the impossible and achieve the goals of weakening confidence in himself. Break large tasks into smaller, which can easily be controlled. Make a list of things to do at the end of the day and check what you have achieved. If the list is too long you will feel defeated in advance. Thus, the set list according to what you can really achieve.
Keep a diary. Many people have found that writing helps them to organize their thoughts, 'loose' some of their negative feelings, and to write predstavnja valuable document that helps them connect thoughts, feelings and actions.
Try to meet daily living duties. Accumulated bills, neglected personal hygiene and neglected home, contribute to a feeling of inferiority. If you do this every day at a time, the results will be visible after a few days.

Some other forms of depression

Seasonal Affective Disorder - SAP

Seasonal affective disorder is a type of depression that occurs at certain times of the year and follows the change of seasons. It is estimated that 2-4% of the population suffers from SAP! Winter depression cycle that repeats several years and for at least two consecutive years may help in the diagnosis of SAP.
It is important that your doctor removes doubts about the depression or manic depression, which can also have predictable cycles during the year. Lots of people with unipolar depression have SAP, but 20% of them may have or continue to develop bipoloarni or manic depressive disorder. Manic or hypomanic episodes may also occur in the spring or summer. It is important to distinguish between good mood is the result of recovery from winter depression and manic episodes, because there are significant differences in lečnju. Samodijagno-sticiranje should be avoided.
Research shows that women are eight times more likely than men SAP. SAP is usually first appears in the 20-team or 30-team age. The percentage of sick of SAP grows to 50's when it starts to decrease, so that the percentage of sick of SAP in people older than 65 years was significantly lower.
SAP symptoms differ from symptoms of depression and include: bad mood, decreased interest in activities that normally bring comfort, reduced concentration, sleeping too long (usually continued for 4 hours or more each day), decreased energy and feelings of fatigue, a strong desire for carbohydrates , Increase telestne weight and craving for sweets; withdrawal from social contacts; Depression.
What is the cause of SAP? No one is quite sure what causes SAP but research shows that it may have something to do with the following factors: Shortened day can cause reduction of important substances in the brain that affect mood; Hormonal Disorder (cortizol, thyroxine) Reduced sensitivity of the retina to light; Low winter temperatures can aggravate the body to rest and disturbed circadian rhythm, air pressure and pressure changes; psychological mechanisms and personality characteristics may be factors that contribute to progressing civilization SAP;
SAP, which left untreated can be a severe blow for social, academic and professional careers. His appearance often coincides with the period when the expectations are greater than the individual.

POSTPARTUM (Postpartum) Depression - PPD

For the birth of a child is always expected to be a blessed moment that brings hope and joy to the mother and family. In fact, about 20-40% of women feel 'postpartum sadness' just a few days after birth, the Lisan uncontrolled weeping and sorrow. Such moods usually pass on its own with the support of loved ones, and with a few good nights of sleep.
However, between 15-20% of women felt long and exhausting period of depression or "postpartum depression" (PPD), which denies them satisfaction, fill them with doubt in myself and ability to care for their child, there is often a cause and provoke in them feelings of hopelessness and guilt. Sleep and appetite are also disturbed, but it is often confused with the change in life expectancy with a baby.
PPD often occurs insidiously and gradually, after an initial period of elation and occurs in the first four weeks after birth. Women are often reluctant to admit that I feel bad because this is beyond the expectations of what 'it should be'. This may cause you to ignore serious symptoms, that they will exceed a deeper depression until it engages and becomes more difficult to treat.
Postnatal mania include increased and inadequate sense of elation, excitement, nervousness, or size.Such mothers are less without sleep complaints of tiredness. Then a mother can forget her child and to have delusions about its importance or identity (eg, consider the baby son of God). Lack of awareness that something is wrong can be prevented in time for help.
However, treatment is essential not only for maternal health, but also for the health of the child.Although rare, some women may develop psychotic depression (with delusional ideas) with hallucinations that can lead to the fact that the mother tried to take his own life or the life of their child odzume to have fiction, insane beliefs / ideas on how to child is dead or defective, it shows excessive concern for children's health or to have impulses to harm the baby.
Previous history of depression or manic depression can increase the risk of developing Postnatal Depression. If you suffer from yourself, or a family history of mood disorders, it is a good preporođajna prepared to reduce this risk and develop a plan for treatment, vital to the health of mother and child.
The clinical picture is similar to the PPD clinical picture of major depression or manic depression.
What causes PPD?
No one is quite sure what is causing that some mothers develop PPD. Research has focused on the role that they play horomona in mood disorders during and after childbirth, and anxiety disorders. It is believed that the sudden change in hormone levels that accompany pregnancy and childbirth, such as estrogen, progesterone and thyroxin strongly influence the mood of women.
Common symptoms of PPD
Bad mood or mood changes from good to bad and vice versa, but from one extreme to another.
Uncontrollable crying and irritability.
Losing interest in activities that are normally enjoyed.
Lack of interest in sex.
Difficulties in memory, concentration and decision making.
Psychomotor agitation or retardation.
Fatigue, feeling of tiredness, laziness.
Changes in appetite or sleep. Insomnia.
Constant thoughts of death or suicide.
Severe intrusive thoughts.
Feelings of guilt and worthlessness, especially with regard to the failure of motherhood.
Lack of interest in the baby.
Excessive concern about the child's health.
Treatment for PPD proved to be very successful, but it can be complicated because:
Breastfeeding can reduce the number of options for treatment especially in terms of taking medications. The mother needs to care for the child at the time when he needed all her strength to help herself. Therefore, the additional support of the family and the medical staff is vital to the mother's recovery and to increase the possibility that the mother and child a full and good connections.
The usual methods of treatment
Treatment for PPD may vary as does the symptoms, including the standard way:
Drugs in order to stabilize the mood and impact of depression;
Psychotherapy and psychosocial support to help the mother to adapt to new duties and care for their children;
Treatment in the hospital may be It is necessary to provide a safe and nurturing environment for the mother and child.
Provide additional support
Creating an environment that can support that 'feeds' the mother and child, encouraging the mother to take care of myself. Ask for help from family and friends (about child care and performing daily tasks such as cooking, shopping, etc..) Build a network of people who can help.
Keep in contact with friends. You feel the need to retreat and hide from friends as it happens. Friends can provide support and give you a break from work is always demanding care about the child.Looking for support and encouragement from other new mothers if there are support groups join them.
Seek help from other experienced mothers. This can help to normalize their experience. New mother does not help so as a wise and experienced advice.
Learn as much as you can from the PPD so that you can understand what is happening and to plan your treatment and make decisions supported by information in connection therewith.
What fathers can do to help? For many mothers postpartum period is extremely demanding. This situation is even more enhanced when PPD is part of the experience. You can play an important role in helping his wife and children. Encourage her to share with you my thoughts and feelings and show her that you understand. Show her that he loved and respected.
If possible take a leave of absence during the first days after birth to help you around the child and allow your partner to relax and take care of yourself. Ask family and friends to help with the duties.
Try not to reject or diminish the significance of the experience through which it passes. If you are concerned about how your partner to cope with the disease - go with her to the doctor with him and share their thoughts and concerns. Take care of your needs. Find someone with whom you can talk about it. Being a father is tricky, especially if you are a father for the first time. Talk to other people who have had a similar experience and who can encourage you and give you support. Continue to participate in and enjoy your personal interests and activities.

Dysthymia

Dysthymia is a mild form of chronic depression that makes people live a life in which works rather well, but her lack of a sense of personal worth and ability. Dysthymia literally means 'bad mood' and explains well the subjective and objective symptoms. Life lacks color and definition. A person who suffers from dysthymia has expressed an inability to feel pleasure from events or incentives for which previously felt satisfaction. Life, lack of joy, color, excitement and pleasure. People with dysthymia are usually anxious, self-critical, preoccupied with events in the past, disappointments and personal failures. Over time, people with dysthymia withdraw from society and isolate. This is most likely due to their inability to enjoy or give satisfaction in social contacts.
Many people with dysthymia are not aware that suffer from a disorder that is treated and seek out the alcohol and drugs that stimulate their only problem. This disorder takes away from the satisfaction of life of people, and it can take away the life. Tests show that between 3 and 12% of people with dysthymia way out of their sick looking at suicide.
It is estimated that about 3-5% of the general population suffers from dysthymia, and that is somewhat more common in women than in men. Children, teenagers and the elderly can develop dysthymia but their mood before be irritable than depressed. For some dysthymia lasts a lifetime, others experience one or several episodes throughout their lives. Some people develop depression after dysthymia, and some develop depression after dysthymia. This fact is important to note as it may mean that previous therapy has not ended quite successfully. Dysthymia in the past have called many names like: depreseija neurotic, light depression, secondary depression and depressive personality. It is also believed that this disorder is part of the character and temperament, but research has shown that it can influence therapy and treatment. Getting this diagnosis now may mean opening the door to exit the suffering.
How is dysthymia diagnosed
To set this diagnosis it is necessary that depressed mood lasts for more than two years, it happens almost every day and at least two of the following symptoms:
Poor appetite or too strong;
Insomnia or sleeping too long;
Fatigue or loss of energy;
Bad about themselves, low self-esteem
Poor concentration;
Problems in decision making;
Hopelessness.
What causes dysthymia?
The exact cause of dysthymia is unknown. Like other depression can be caused by a combination of several factors. Tests indicate that individuals may inherit a predisposition to the development of depressive states. Those who have family members who have suffered from depression at a higher risk to develop this disorder alone.
Imbalance or disorder of the brain chemistry is related to mood swings and changes in neurotransmitters in the brain can influence the thoughts, feelings and behavior.
Environment can also affect the wake of depressive states. The disappointment, stress and / or trauma resulting from things like unemployment, personal tragedy or failure, family breakdown, can influence the development of depression.
Psychological factors can also influence the development of depression. For example, some studies suggest that behavioral depression may be a product of 'learned helplessness', which stems from the repeated loss of positive support and that may influence the increased rate of adverse events in life.
View of the world may increase depression by maintaining negative and / or unrealistic attitudes and beliefs about yourself, the people around you or the future.
Due to the success of drug treatment dysthymia is assumed that its causes may be biological.Research shows that the possible immunological, hormonal and neurotransmitter connection with dysthymia.

Text taken from "Canadian Society for mood disorders" - "Mood Disorders Society of Canada"

What is depression?

The very name of depression comes from Latin and means depression. When doctors talk about depression, they think of a series of related psychophysical condition characterized by mood disorders, ie. affective disorders. They are recognized as the lowered mood, negative emotions and dark thoughts. Accompanied by physical symptoms such as fatigue, exhaustion, sleep and appetite disturbances. It seems that the ignorance of the vast majority of the population that is "outside of medicine," the main culprit "informal" use of the word depression became "in". So every now and then someone at work, or in a tram, even within the family in a statement that "depressions".Fortunately, usually it's just a lighter, a transient fall mood. The problem is that the frequent use of the word and facilitate depression "seduced" many healthy people and is often not taken seriously by either (right) of the patients in their midst, one who needs help because of (real) depression.

Who gets depression?
The data indicate that currently suffers from depression 3 to 4 percent of the population of industrialized countries. So far, it seems that women are more vulnerable than men because of their depression diagnosed two to three times more likely than the "stronger sex". But those numbers may be a consequence of the fact that men are less often because of shame seek medical attention.
Currently in Croatia from some form of depressive disorder suffer at least 100,000 to 200,000 people, one fifth of Croatia will experience at least one depressive episode in their lifetime.
The World Health Organization predicts that by 2010. For 30 percent of people suffer from depressive disorders, and that the 2020th the disease would be the second most common cause of death in the world (due to suicide or secondary disease that causes depression). According to the data, about 15 percent of the most severe depressive, who were treated at a hospital, to end their own life because of the great tribulation. It is believed that more than two-thirds of suicides committed by patients who are severely depressed.

What causes depression?
Although some symptoms associated with the psyche, modern medicine considers depression to physical illness. It is a disease of the central nervous system in which the emergence of "critical twisted" nervous and physiological factors. The disease occurs when the part of the brain responsible for mood there is "failure". Here the mood implies a whole range of emotions, on the bottom of a deep depression in the middle of the indifference and the top holds euphoria. Therefore depression is not tangible, intangible disease "in the minds" of patients, but visible changes in the nerve cells and chemical processes in the brain.
The most common diseases of water outside factors, such as suffered stress, improper diet, lack of light, low physical activity, alcohol and some drugs and narcotics. It turned out that some people have an innate tendency (predisposition) depression, which is genetically transmitted. Thus, people with congenital "defect" in the nervous system can be affected by the impact of a small living, and even without it, while those with a naturally strong nervous system and can withstand very severe shocks.
Biological psychiatry so depressed about the material, which is written in the genetic code indicates a particular propensity to develop depressive disorder .. Simply put, the brain acts as an electro-chemical system that consists of billions of nerve cells. These cells are "swimming" in the hundreds of chemicals, each neuron and chemical substances have a specific task. When there is not enough of a substance or if the nerve cells are dead, parts of the brain may remain "out of order".
The occurrence of depression is associated with decreased activity of certain brain hormones substances called neurotransmitters (neurotransmitters). These nerve cells (neurons) are used for communication and transmission of impulses across synapses, ie. tiny cracks that separates nerve cells. Some neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine have a natural antidepressant function, which can not be carried out if their levels in the brain decreases.
Another important factor for depression is stress mechanism disturbed or excessive secretion of stress hormones, such as cortisol and CRH's. It is known that more than half of depressed patients have increased levels of the hormone cortisol, which destroys brain cells and disrupts the brain's chemistry.

Symptoms of depression
Depression can be identified by a number of symptoms, each patient has the strength and type of symptoms differ from each other. No symptoms of whimsy comes to the fore with the same depresivca, over time, can suffer from different symptoms and who have various strength.

The most common symptoms of depression include:
- Melancholy, sombre mood onslaught of black thought and memory;
- Intense sadness, self-pity, crying attacks;
- Sensitivity, vulnerability, irritability ("everything bothers me");
- Fear, anxiety, worry, anxiety ("Something terrible is going to happen");
- Pessimism, hopelessness and helplessness ("there is no salvation", "I shall never be better");
- Feelings of worthlessness, guilt and redundancy ("Nobody loves me", "No-one should be");
- Loneliness, a sense of not belonging or insecurity ("I'm all alone in the world");
- An inability to enjoy previously pleasurable things or activities ("Nothing makes me happy");
- Apathy, lethargy ("I do not that");
- Weakened concentration and memory disorders;
- Fatigue, exhaustion, lack of energy;
- Significantly reduced or increased appetite;
- Insomnia or excessive need for sleep;
- Physical pain with no physical cause;
- Death wish or planning suicide ("I can not take it anymore," "Better to be gone").

Which should be kept
Depressive symptoms caused by chemical and nervous disorders of the brain, but in their part causing numerous factors:
- Stressful event (trauma) - The death or illness of a loved one, divorce, termination of a love relationship or intimate friendships, job loss, relocation, serious injury, illness diagnosis, exposure to violence, arrest, trial, conviction to imprisonment, a disaster like an earthquake or fire etc..;
- Chronic exposure to stress - stress at work, at school or in the family, poor interpersonal relationships, poor social life;
- Lack of light;
- Some drugs - contraceptives, steroids, reserpine, sedatives;
- Alcohol or drugs;
- Allergy;
- Unhealthy diet - low in complex carbohydrates and unsaturated fatty acids;
- Previous illnesses - thyroid disorder, diabetes, stroke, etc..;
- Genetic predisposition - an inherent weakness of the nervous and hormonal systems, irregularities in the structure of the brain.

Treatment for depression

Depression is most often treated with antidepressants. When taken regularly and as directed by your doctor, your mood within one to six weeks
The first question that arises when we hit the depression is what you do. In any case, you should consult a doctor. It can be a general practitioner, who will have to rewrite antidepressants or ill will, if necessary to a specialist-a psychiatrist. One can go and psychiatrist who has a private practice.
Unfortunately, the huge number of patients it hard to accept that they suffer from mental disorders is unease goes to a psychiatrist. Many were "shocked" when the doctor said to suffer from depression and this diagnosis seen as a blow to the ego. Others fear that it will behave colleagues and acquaintances, if you learn of their disease. It seems to be good reason, because some of the "healthy" and sometimes really poorly educated noses at depresivce. Fortunately, due to the more global knowledge of the physical nature of the disease that traditionally and imprecisely called "psychic", but their lack of understanding of the environment and more patients seeking medical attention.

Life problems
Suffer from depression or another mood disorder does not mean "be crazy", "stupid" or "immoral."There is no reason to be ashamed to go a psychiatrist or someone explain that his move. Shame is just one of the consequences of depression, and how treatment is progressing so ashamed fading. On examination it is important to honestly and thoroughly familiar with the symptoms of medical illness.According to symptoms, posture and manner of speech, and other external indicators, the doctor will determine the treatment. Will overwrite taking one of the many antidepressants and psychotherapy if needed.

Without improvisation
The treatment of depression are commonly used drugs, so-called. antidepressants. They remove or alleviate the symptoms of the disease within one to six weeks, and can be combined with other procedures and counseling. Antidepressants should be taken continuously and accurately by your doctor, without deviation or "improv" which are sometimes prone.
The World Health Organization recommends taking antidepressants, and six to ten months after the disappearance of symptoms, and some experts advocate a multi-year or even a lifetime of taking drugs in patients with chronic depression.
It is believed that antidepressants do not cure the underlying disorder that causes depression, but alleviate or eliminate symptoms. But some recent findings suggest that long-term use of antidepressants may have a "profound" effect on the biological "defect" in the brain and even stimulate the growth of new brain cells.

Three rings
In the market there are dozens of antidepressants according to their effect into several main groups.All have in common that potentiate the action of one or more brain hormones and so "quench hunger" neurons that use the hormones.
The earliest antidepressants called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), halt the degradation process "antidepressant substance" of serotonin and norepinephrine (monooxygenase). Therefore, the result of taking these drugs increase the amount of serotonin and norepinephrine between nerve cells.
Tricyclic drugs (so called because of the "troprstenog" form of chemical structure) stop the process called. reuptake of neurotransmitters. They inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine to retreat into nerve cells that secreted them. The result is an increased amount of neurotransmitter in the brain "circulation".
These drugs are discovered fifties 20th century. Although effectively eliminate the symptoms of depression, do not work enough, "targeted" and raises a number of side effects. Some require a strict adherence to the prescribed diet, and all are suitable for abuse, because they are deadly if taken in excessive amounts. Additional significant is the marked sedative effect and are taken while patients can not operate vehicles and machinery.

Targeted and clean
The second group consists of the so-called remedies. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), for "targeted" to prevent serotonin premature "resigning" from the cerebral circulation, so it remains more available to nerve cells. This group of drugs can cause side effects such as nausea, irritability and decreased sexual desire. Nausea usually appears at the beginning of treatment, but eventually disappears, and we can say that these drugs are better tolerated than the so-called. tricyclic antidepressants. Added to that is the important fact that these drugs are not suitable for abuse (for suicide), and does not interfere with the treatment or management of car and machinery.
The last decade has produced a number of effective medications: reboxetine (which targets the noradrenalinski system), venlafaxine (like triciklika which strengthens the activity of serotonin and norepinephrine but with much less side effects), bupropion (unique in that it acts on norepinephrine and dopamine).

What should I know about taking drugs
First Antidepressants do not act immediately, such as aspirin or tranquilizers. Depending on the form of the disease, it is between one and six weeks that drugs lead to improvements. It is vital to take continuous and full compliance with the guidelines.
Second All types of antidepressants as successfully alleviate the symptoms of depression for almost 80 percent of patients. When one drug proves ineffective, your doctor may increase the dose of the same medicine, prescribe another medication (usually with a different mechanism of action), the first drug or add another medicine, or thyroid hormones.
3rd Antidepressants do not cause addiction. If the patient has to take medication long-term, it is because it requires the nature of the disease, not because medicine is addictive.
4th Antidepressants do not interfere with patient in dealing with problems in life, if there are problems. Indeed, enabling them to solve them.
5th Antidepressants do not serve to "push" life problems "under the rug", or for their suppression.Depressed patient is just depression biggest problem in life, and that needs to be solved first.

Talking therapy
Psychotherapy is a welcome help depressed patients, especially in the period before the medication to take effect. When his condition improves, the therapist can learn some practical "antidepressant" skills.
A few decades doctors have treated depressed patients only "conversational therapy" or counseling.It is no wonder, since most psychotherapeutic techniques designed to detect before the biological nature of depression, and before effective drugs are manufactured.
Today, a good therapist to patient needs first and foremost to provide the company, attention, understanding, comfort and hope, especially in the period before antidepressant drugs act. When the patient is "clear up" state and is ready to actively participate in therapy, then the therapist can learn some practical "antidepressant" skills: how to better handle the people, how to better organize their lives and avoid stressful situations, how to ask for what you want and to oppose what he does not go "in the" generally to be a part of the society.
But the theory of the development of depression and therapeutic techniques that are based on them, have serious pitfalls.
Psychoanalytic therapy, which are set by Sigmund Freud, based on the assumption that the depression caused by trauma in early childhood. The most pernicious of them are lack of parental attention and failure to meet the parents. Therefore psychoanalysts treat depression by specifying the patient to "become aware" of trauma suffered in childhood, which was eventually "pushed".
There is no doubt that the stress suffered in childhood is extremely destructive to the nervous system, they can cause physiological sensitivity to stress, and increased activity and chronic stress mechanism. But it is questionable how depressed patient may benefit from the invocation of stressful experiences in consciousness, even when the process of remembering repressed trauma would take months or years.

Cognitive-behavioral (cognitive-behavioral) therapies based on the assumption that depression is a result of deeply rooted wrong (negative) perceptions about the patient himself and his circumstances. The therapist helps the patient to expose the "misconceptions" and replace them properly. It also seeks to uncover wrongdoing and patient behaviors that cause or contribute to depression. Then the patient is trying to learn healthier behaviors.
The problem is that depressed patients do not have a disturbed perception of life. For example, one can believe that it is very unlucky, or in a difficult situation - and thereby be right! Then, in the world of millions of people who have a defective understanding of yourself and your life, and in ways that suffer from depression. Finally, a number of depressed patients actually have the wrong knowledge, attitudes and distorted disturbed behavior, but mostly it is a consequence of the disease rather than its cause. There is no convincing evidence that disturbed perceptions precede depression, but it is common for them to disappear or be mitigated after treatment with antidepressants.
Interpersonal therapy is considered to be the most common cause of depression, disturbed interpersonal relations: within marriage, family and the wider society. Therefore, the patient learns "social skills" (establishing, developing and maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships), realistic expectations about coping with these difficult situations.
Although disturbed interpersonal relationships can be an inexhaustible source of stress, how is doubtful, for example, an unhappy marriage or conflict in the workplace causes and consequences of how depressive disorder.


From electro-shock therapy to light
The treatment of depression shown to be effective some of the practices that affect the biochemical-electrical processes in the brain. One of these procedures is electroconvulsive therapy or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
Electroshock therapy is still the best method of treating severe depression and manic phase of bipolar disorder. Carried out in the hospital and is completely harmless. Ill give it the means to relax the muscles and introduces it into a full anesthetic. He was then on one or both sides of the head placed electrodes in the brain that plays a small electric current to induce convulsion (seizures). The spasm is a key therapeutic element of ECT. The procedure was repeated 6 to 12 times at intervals of two to three days.
Transkranealna magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a new therapy whose effectiveness is still being investigated. The first results are promising. In this case the doctor magnet passes in front of the left frontal lobe of the brain patient, which activates nerve cells in that part of the brain and leads to a similar effect as with electroshock therapy.
Light therapy is used primarily for winter depression, or those caused by a lack of light. Ill look into the lamp power 2,500 and 10,000 lux between 30 and 120 minutes (the weaker the lamp treatment takes longer). The effect is achieved after 3 to 4 days.
Insomnia therapy helps depressed patients which significantly alleviating the symptoms of the disease after a sleepless night or after 3 to 4 hours prior waking. It can be combined with light therapy, so the patient immediately after waking up incurring bright light. It appears that the brain's electro-chemical processes disturbing during sleep, especially during REM stages (stages dreaming), while prolonged wakefulness "returns" in the process disrupted the normal function.

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Srednjovečnost brings many depression

A global study of happiness has shown that the mean age in the life of many people the most depressive.

The study was based on data from 80-odd countries that showed that people are happiest in youth and old age depression is most common among men and women in the forties.

"People all over the world show a surprising same line of happiness and mental health in the form of letters," says Professor Andrew Oswald from the University of Warwick in the UK. In a couple of people suffer more some less, but on average the impact of years of resentment evident in this population.

Professor and Professor Oswald. David Blanchflower of Dartmouth University of America, studied data on depression, anxiety levels and general mental health, which is associated with the quality of life of 2 million people from countries from Albania to Zimbabwe.

The average person in modern society is beginning to show a decline in the feeling of happiness and mental health gradually rather than abruptly over a year. It happens to both men and women, rich and poor, single and married, those with and without children, no one knows why this occurs regularity in human behavior. Probably because middle-aged people are starting to realize that they will not be able to achieve many of the goals that others had set out. The good news is that one can be active for up to 70-ies because if it is healthy and physically fit in the average, happy and mentally healthy as well as the 20-year-old.

The eight nations that belong to the developing world do not show the curve of happiness in the form of the letter U.

Prof. Oswald says that the revelation that the feeling resentment, anxiety in middle age normally useful to easily survive this stage in life.

However prof. Bob Cummins Dean of Deakin University in Melbourne says it can not be considered a rule that depression is normal in middle age. He believes that the results of the study published by Blanchflower and Oswald are not entirely reliable because although an impressive number of studies is that the data analysis is done from many countries makes it difficult to take into account the factors that caused the depression in middle age.

According to the research population in Australia srednjovečne happiness curve shows the form of the only people who do not have a good love relationship or enough money. For the poor srednjovečnih Australians for happiness is a very important family harmony and support.

Today there is a tendency to say "depression" describes inevitable periods of sadness
that each of us feel from time to time. Many of us are not able to set
where the limit stops normal sadness and clinical depression begins. Someone who once felt
expressed in a depression knows that it is a feeling that goes far beyond the ordinary sense of sadness.
Clinical depression is a disease characterized group feeling, thinking and behavior
that is very clear on a number of different feelings and functioning normal, healthy individuals.
Caused by a complex coordinated action of biological, social and psychological factors,
Depression makes a person very sensitive to environmental conditions and to the state of black
despair.
During the depression patient starts to overwhelm feelings of sadness, emptiness and worthlessness.
These feelings become deeper, builds up a sense of constant deprivation,
insignificance, inadequacy, guilt obsession.
Occasionally, a depressed person may feel constant irritation sometimes brought to
eruption of rage and anger.
Although depression can be caused by a specific life circumstances and
Events and ways of reacting to it is very exaggerated. The essence of depression is
the event, but the vulnerability of the psyche of the person's going.
In rare cases, people may feel like a depression, single episode.
In most cases, depression occurs periodically, reactively or cyclically.
It may take two years without the occurrence of depression.
In some individuals there is a slight depression which is described as permanent,
or depressive temperament that is the basis from which the episode occurs
real depression.
The formation of true depression in these individuals may induce a number of situations:
termination of a romantic relationship, job loss, death of a loved one, a life change
(Away from home ...). These situations can provoke a deep depression.

For some people it describes so called. "Sezonsa depression." This condition is a reaction to certain
climatic factors which are mainly located in the north countries with climate usrovom
kalimatskim and large changes. Typical reaction in these cases that occur in the winter
or during rainy periods were pronounced fatigue, a strong desire for sweets, hunger and perkomerna
constant drowsiness. These conditions are associated with brain function and pituitary function.

Depressed mood can encourage disease and stalling recovery.
In fact, the brain is connected through biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms of
the whole organism. Depression in 25% of cases of high blood pressure monitor,
heart disease and some mental state - separation, death or loss of a loved one affected by
the immune system and leads to the spread of infection.
Also, recovery from a heart attack depends on the resolution of the depressive state.

What are the symptoms of depression?
-Or long-term acute sense of despair, misery too blame for what
the existence of some of life's circumstances
- Unrealistic fears, anxiety and concern
- Lack of interest or pleasure in many life activities
- Strong sense of slowness, fatigue and discomfort
- Convinced that everything is worthless and unhappy
- Preoccupation with thoughts of suicide and death
- Sudden changes in appetite and / or weight
- Headaches, frequent urination
- Difficulties with sleep (inability to sleep or excessive sleepiness)
- Weakened concentration and decision making
- Dramatic changes in social relationships and at work
- The existence of hyper-arousal - anxiety that occurs in 2 out of 3 people depressed
and increases the risk of suicide

Are there people predisposed to depression?
First Those who have a family history information on the existence of depression in the family
have twice the risk of illness
Second Women with depression twice as often as men
(There are certain times when a woman is vulnerable to depressed mood as
caused by the action of hormones: PMS, pregnancy, postpartum, during use
contraceptive pills)
It is also interesting that mothers have slowed or milder forms of depression than women who
do not have children, which is explained by an emotional connection with their children to protect them from
strong emotional interaction of different nature
3rd The existence of severe emotional trauma in childhood
4th Depression in the elderly is often embroidered on physical decrepit, loss of friends,
reduction activities

What you can expect a doctor?
-Striking changes in behavior
- Lack of interest in all of life's pleasures: food, sex, socializing with a friend,
work, family, sports, hobbies;
- The presence of depression and suicide in the family, as well as the use of alcohol, drugs
- Negativism, pessimism, self-blame
- Siucidna thinking

What can you do?
During the period when you feel resentment, seek advice from a friend
or someone in the family. In milder forms of depression, a loved one can advice you a lot
assistance.
But in cases of severe forms of depression, similar illnesses such as asthma, hypertension,
you need to seek expert, medical care.
Advice is to spend as much time outdoors, even in winter.
Improve lighting with natural light in the rooms in which you reside
sunlight improves mood.
Whenever possible during the winter travel to areas with warmer climates.

How is it treated?
Milder forms of depression are treated with psychotherapy only.
In severe cases, the drugs are necessary. Although the general practitioners can prescribe
drugs for depression, psychiatric consultation is advised that adequate treatment and
follow their treatment correctly dosed. In fact there is considerable room
variations in the type of drug and dose.
In the most severe cases, electroconvulsive therapy is necessary.

When to contact your doctor?
If it's bothering you feeling despondency over two weeks, if you'd rather stay in bed, unless all the more isolated from family and friends, and you've lost all interest in any activity
- Must consult your doctor!
If you catch yourself thinking about death and life of worthlessness, suicidal
- Seek help NOW!

How to get out of depression?

When you run into a state of depression, constant mood that followed the loss of the will to live - often caused by the failure to realize just emotional - think no way out.

If that happens, the person in your proximity, you will feel powerless to help her. Exit there, but it is a long process. As it came to that situation gradually, it is necessary to gradually solve the problem.

To help a person who is in that state, you need to arm yourself with patience. The bottom line is to never let that person be left alone. Tell her things namaju do with her condition, such as. events that happened to your sister, acquaintances or companions. Try to be funny, but do not overdo it in the cave-in, because then there will be no effect. Make sure that the person in your story hinted at how much beauty and vibrancy found in every normal, ordinary life.

After a certain period, that person try to perform among the people. As time goes by, itself will begin to open up and realizes that he is not alone, and only then, in the third step, the moment you start talking about the real cause of her condition. It can be a variety of things: a lack of ambition, failure at work and, of course, failure in love ...

Depression can be a problem in Velki life of a woman or man and is extremely difficult to treat. If you have beside you at least one person who cares about you, then you need not fear, because she will do everything to get away from that situation. If anything, at least you will see that there is someone who loves you and you love that person for Promente thinking in a positive direction.

Herbs for depression

Do you belong among those women who are very fond of plants and that are trying to find any good place to foster a plant, whether the plants on balconies, terraces, or from a window in the garden? If he does not have a convenient place, however, you'll find someone! If you recognize yourself in this description, great for you! It has been shown that plants have a very good impact on those who deal with them.

Not just talking about it that you can grow medicinal plants (beneficial to health, and many beautiful looks and smells), ornamental plants that will brighten up any household, home, herbs (nice smell, plus it saves the household budget), maybe some vegetables (tomato thrives in pots - looks nice, plus spare you some of the costs). These are all potential benefits of growing plants, plus your plants purify the air (cheaper than any of the filter and more efficient than most), and some plants their fragrance can dispel mosquitoes (eg, lavender).
Nor is this all. It turned out that growing plants - any plant - has a beneficial effect on the human psyche. Growing plants proven to be especially healing when it comes to people prone to mood swings, gloomy thoughts and depression. This observation is not even particularly new - still an American psychiatrist in the eighteenth century, Benjamin Rush, noted that his patient before growing plants.
Old observation is confirmed by recent research - showed that even a dwelling near green spaces improve quality of life. Japanese scientists believe that life on the street where there are trees or in the vicinity of the park has a good chance to be a longer and healthier.
So, if you do not live near green spaces and do not have time to stay in the countryside, at least try to create your own home an oasis of greenery - there are plants that do not require a lot of care, and in addition, growing plants require much less money and time than visiting a doctor and treatment of depression or low mood.


Drinking and depression

It is possible that a genetic tendency toward depression, it is possible, of course, and that the life chances of a person falling into depression more often than others. However, there are many other factors that can lead to anxiety. They are conditioned by our decisions and our irresponsible behavior. The point is a simple calculation - people who drink alcohol in order to feel better in fact only worsen their situation and become even more vulnerable to depression. In other words, if you are from those who are looking in the alcohol cure for anxiety, anxiety and sadness, only increases the risk that in the foreseeable future you develop depression.

Like all other types of drugs that we can do that we take into our bodies, and alcohol is only a temporary solution. It weakens the sensors that are responsible for relieving depression and anxiety.Excessive alcohol konsumiranjem our tolerance level is reduced so that at the end of the brain is no longer able to prevent the oncoming wave of depression. It is possible that all of this sounds like just empty talk about the harmful factors that can shorten life expectancy. You have the right to think so, but then do not complain when your boss, two or three, you have to be very nice used, not otklanjao bad mood.

The influence of alcohol on our body is so serious that it would be good to ask the companies that produce alcoholic beverages to the label and put a note in which it will be clearly noted that excessive amounts of alcohol can seriously and permanently impair mental health. Since very little, almost nothing, the probability that something will happen in the near future, you are left only to be more careful the next time you decide that your sadness and bad mood drowned in the drink



Postbračna depression - what is it?

From childhood she dreamed of a white wedding. Perfect wedding as a fairy tale. He arrived that day: she's getting married! No, marriage is not a disaster, not the opposite of her dreams, on the contrary - it turned out perfectly, just as she had hoped, just as he wanted for so long. She married a man she truly loves and who loves her, both of them are relatively well off, are mature and ready for marriage. Everything is great - except that after the wedding she fell into a depression.

During the honeymoon, she was moody. Honeymoon is also something like a dream - in a beautiful place, a luxury hotel, and he and she were young, healthy, everything should be perfect. However, it is not. She was depressed, and since then the depression came after the wedding that is eager and prepared carefully, and that was perfect, and after a honeymoon in a perfect place, and after her beloved and just as beautiful as ever - she just not able to tell him that the sulky.

I am ashamed of such a filthy mood - how did it right in such circumstances to be perfect bad mood?Her husband did his best to every detail is exactly how she wanted and how he dreamed it would be - so now he says he feels unhappy? Instead, she hides her moodiness and turns as it can, that's all right, and he is perfectly happy.

This phenomenon is called postbračna depression can hit any of the partners, but more often affects women. Statistics say that ten percent of the young lady postbračnoj prone to depression. How to get it there?

The most common form is this that we have described: the wedding emotionally invested very much, everything has to be perfect, and the woman (or man) a thousand times, surviving a pre-wedding.Then when he utters the fateful "yes", and when the celebration ends itself - when, that is, all that is over and finally - the bride or groom feel somehow emptied and become susceptible grieving syndrome.

Sometimes, the dark mood and thoughts pass by themselves within a few days. Marriage begins to run its usual course. However, some depression does not pass - it leads to the collapse of marriage.Only a few months later, sometimes faster, there is a divorce.

Postbračna depression is more common in recent years, in fact, in recent years has become loud enough to be named. Therefore, the psychotherapists, as well as potential helpers, relatively new (say relatively, because depression as such is nothing new, just this once its shape has not been nearly as common).

What to do if something like this happens to you, if you are after the perfect wedding with a beautiful melancholy overcomes partner? Wait for some time - it is possible that when you go to the wedding memories, especially a feeling of exhaustion and emptiness, sad thoughts to pass on their own. That is, in most cases. If even after three weeks of moodiness does not pass, do not hesitate to contact a professional for help - is to allow the marriage to fail so that you want and that you have invested so much if there's anyone who can help?


Postpartum depression - how to survive

Everything was great. Love each other for some time you are online, you resolve to have a child, you've got a kid. All are reasons to be happy, it seems, there. Just as it appeared the reason for the crash - boogeyman called postpartum depression. Then married life, however much like spouses and children no matter how they got there desired by both, can become a living hell.

Hormonal changes in the body can cause mothers mood swings. The most common reaction is that women tend to cry and mild disturbances. However, it happens that a woman feels much stronger and hormonal changes in them, and this leads to a condition known as post-natal depression. It can occur immediately after birth, and as many as five to six months later (and a man, all confused, asks, "What happened to her at once, we were so happy?").

One of the symptoms of postpartum depression is a complete lack of interest in sex (of course, we're talking about a time when mothers would have been allowed to apply). A common symptom is extreme tiredness, which is mainly attributed to only care about babies, day or night. Reinforces the sense of fear and apathy. One of the worst (by a woman) symptoms is feeling young mother that her baby does not love you enough.

If these symptoms are noticed, it should be as soon as possible and contact a physician to treat postpartum depression, otherwise it can take a very long time (in some cases, so long that the young father, desperate for their spouses as they like, but they can no longer to understand, and no idea how to help her leave the family, which, of course, only heighten depression). It turned out to be the best treatment results are achieved with counseling and psychotherapy.

So, if this phenomenon occurs - do not panic, because this is something that is not so unusual.Contact your doctor as soon as possible and, after some time, the symptoms will pass, and the happy family will be able to be just that - a happy family.

Colors for depression

And the warmest time of the year can bring us a very serious depression. Therefore, little tricks to fool the brain and prevent or mitigate adverse effects. For a start, the morning should begin activating all the available light in the apartment. In addition, you will certainly use it to stay open longer! Even during the day najtmurnijih intensity of daylight is enough to lift your mood.

Treat yourself and color therapy. Each color has a reflection on our bodies. Yellow and orange mood and stimulate the activity: red gives us life energy and green soothes and creates harmony. So when it comes to colors and their positive impact, both on your body and on the mind, you can serve and methods that operate on the principle of "do it yourself". Select and wear clothes in incentive colors or apply a specific procedure, in short, means to sit back, close your eyes, relax, and then, in my mind, create a color with a positive effect.

Color Therapy is not only grateful for the removal of the negative consequences of depression, it is effective in heart failure, there is a problem with migraine headaches, overweight, and lack of appetite. Colors affect the mood, so the color therapy used for different types of mental relaxation, and is also used for the disposal and treatment of consequences of stress state of the body. They successfully eliminate physical and mental blockages, stimulate the body to discharge pollutants and strengthen the immune system. In addition, it is impossible to therapy results in undesirable consequences, or to cause any adverse effects.

Why, then, not to color their view of the world with the color that suits you and makes you more relaxed and ready to face the daily amount of stress?

Why are women more prone to depression

For a long time, often the subject of psychological study are psychological differences between men and women. Many studies have been done around the world revealed one significant differentiation - a predisposition for the occurrence of depression are higher in women than in men.

In human development, until puberty, both sexes showed equal tendency towards depression, but since puberty changes everything - women are twice more susceptible to attacks of depression.

It is interesting that such a large difference decreases in men and women in their fifties. The conclusion is - this psychological problem affecting women living in a time when you are fertile and can conceive.

On the differences between the sexes, research was conducted on the University of Virginia in the United States, and that the most appropriate subjects - twin pairs of both sexes. No new sensational differences were observed, except for one - there is a big difference between the sexes in the manner and intensity of response to environmental disasters.

In women, there is a tendency to lower levels during the stress fall into a depression.

Low levels of stress in modern times present in almost all humans, but this difference was observed between the sexes related to - response to stress. For example, men from women turbulent reacting to the loss of a job, a wife turbulent regauju problems in their social milieu.

There are, however, some stress that women experience in their lives, while men do not. Would mean a very demanding role of women in the modern age: it takes care of the household and takes over the main part of the care of children, while the substation (or by itself requires) to have a career.Members of both sexes spend the same number of hours at work, but somehow implies that women need to be active in local activities and educating children, while men such requirements are not strongly expressed.

And the female body reacts differently to stress than men. The female body secrete more stress hormones, which continues at a certain period and when you pass a stressful situation. The female hormone progesterone blocks quickly "turn off" the stress hormone.

Women are prone to excessive considering and thinking about problems, so their negative images and feelings repeated many times going through my head, especially when it comes to thinking about failed relationships.

All this does not mean that the men in my life easier - they show a greater tendency of women to alcohol, drugs and antisocial behavior.


Depression in adulthood

You have 40-50 years and your mood is often not as good as it once was, and as you'd like? You're not alone. Many people feel that way in those years. Research shows that this is indeed the age of great emotional instability. The good news is - after this period of life, the golden years, the level of your mood will only grow.

London scientists have drawn the curve that represents the mood throughout life (and involved respondents around the globe - from Albania to Zimbabwe). This curve resembles the Latin letter U, because the mood is high in youth, in middle age is low, to the old line again soared upward, indicating a good mood.

Researchers analyzed data on depression, anxiety, mental and physical health, and to the huge sample of two million people from various parts of the world.

On average, the year in which the person feels the worst, if we look at all of the nation, is the 48thyears. However, there are differences between regions: the average Briton is the worst feeling in the 36th year, and the Portuguese in the 66th year.

The issue of test subjects on the American continent was: "How are you feeling these days: if you are very happy, pretty happy or not too happy?" In Europe it's the question asked in a slightly different version: "On the whole, are you very satisfied, fairly satisfied, not very satisfied or dissatisfied with the life you lead?"

For most average people, the line of happiness in middle age is lowered slowly and gradually to the bottom, it does not happen at once.

Of all the world's nations, only eight countries in the curve of happiness did not match the letter U.Only deviate from the average in developing countries. For everyone else, there is a great consistency, regardless of gender, financial status and education.

How did such a picture of happiness just average citizens of our planet?

One possibility: a middle-aged man realizes that he will not be able to accomplish all of your aspirations and to do everything in life is planned and wanted.

Another reason could be that, as the years go by, more and more people I know died. This leads us to think about our own transience and death.

Also, middle-aged man asks himself the crucial question: "Do I really successful? Did my good marriage?"

Around sixty years, man has resolved to himself those questions, and then performs a quiet period.The best news, experts say, is this: if you experience the 70th years of relatively good health, you'd be happy like their twenties!


New ways to fight depression (1)

Relax by reading books

Taking a break from the everyday problems might be found between the covers of a good book.

In the UK, some doctors recommend patients read self-help book. Some patients who suffer from depression or anxiety, it can be used more than traditional psychotherapy. Of course, not recommended any books, except those approved by the doctor (because the area has a lot of useless self-help, written in layman, and therefore harmful books). This form of therapy has given the name - bibliotherapy. Not designed for each patient, but only for certain who show their willingness for such therapies.

These are not generic and dull book, but reading that are offering specific techniques for overcoming some psychological problems.

This technique has helped many Brits, so we hope that similar efforts be made in this country.

Therapy walk

Can a conversation with a therapist to be more effective if it occurs in the open?

It's not new to the movement and physical activity improves mood. Some therapists have used this knowledge in their practice: encourage patients to walk, run or lift weights, and at the same time talking about their problems. The result can be a double benefit for the patient.

One of the members of such treatment said: "Physical activity speeds up the therapy. So release your emotions better than while the patient is sitting in a chair. Creator of this type of therapy is Džonsgard K., Professor, University of San Jose. These techniques he started to use more 1970.. His main areas of interest are mood disorders. He argues that physical activity can be effective as the pill, but without the side effects. Exercises release of body chemicals responsible for mood (just remember what a pleasure feeling after strenuous exercise). addition, exercises cause a positive hormonal changes in the body, and may be grounds for permanent relief from depression. depressed patients if exercise becomes a daily routine, it's a big step toward healing. addition - better form, circulation and physical appearance - all contribute to improved patient opinion of himself, which further enhances the positive effects of psychotherapy

New ways to fight depression (2)
Lidija Novakovic

And before it was known that physical exercise for good mood, and is certainly useful and psychotherapy. K. Džonsgard and his colleagues were the first psychologists who merged the two into one, claiming it is more effective than a combination of separate actions. One of these techniques spokeswoman said: "For some people, physical activity promotes the work of the right brain, which leads to the release of intuitive thinking. Thus, these successful people can not see its own problems and to come up with a solution."

The therapist is doing its job by going to the customer for long walks by the river, and along with them to talk. She also says: "A walk in the fresh air and reminds the client to a healthy approach to life, and lying in the psychiatric couch can cause conflicting thoughts - lying position we take when we are sick."

There is also scientific evidence for these claims. In 1982. in the medical journal "Women and Therapy," published a study on the following research: Patients in the first group just before psychotherapy sessions ran or walked a half hour to an hour. Another group of women went into psychotherapy in the usual way. A study has shown that women in the first group session approached in a more positive way, with more power, energy and achievement.

T. Hengeš, marriage and family therapist, talks about the following case: "I have worked with a depressed client. Antidepressants were not helpful. Constantly we repeated the same story, revolving around the same theme without any progress. Then I discovered the client's love of plants, he was a true artist in gardening. went out to the outside and work in the garden perform psychotherapy talks. Finally I had access to his entire person, started to be completely open and reveal their emotions without restraint. Therapy outdoors led to the rapid progress. "

Of course, this type of therapy is not suitable for every patient and every situation. Some topics are too painful to be revealed on the street. However, for most depressed patients - this is a good opportunity.

Two-minute strategies for stress and depression

You do not need a whole afternoon in the spa-center to get rid of negative feelings. Let's see what can be done in minutes:

After a long sit, gently massage your feet. You can soak them in scented bath.

Instead of condemning other people's weaknesses, find something humorous in it and be laugh.

Everyday objects that surround us may seem relaxing: a collection of books can remind you of the time you read them, the CD can recall a moment when you first heard that song, scented candles can make an instant relaxing atmosphere.

Depression in men
Lidija Novakovic

Does depression manifests the same way for men and women? Not always.
We're talking about depression as an illness - clinical depression, not a mild form of what we are all more or less susceptible.
For both sexes, there may be a severe depression with symptoms that include constant sadness, feelings of hopelessness, insomnia and lack of appetite, lack of interest in sex, feelings of worthlessness, and suicidal thoughts.
However, social roles, as well as physiological and psychological differences between men and women, can cause some gender differences in the experience of depression.
This disease, as is well known, occurs more frequently in women than in men. However, it is surprising the following: the rate of suicide among depressed patients is four times higher than in women. Also, when a man decides to commit suicide - probably will do it in a violent manner.

Clinical depression usually appears by itself as a primary disorder, but it is not unusual for it to occur, and other psychiatric conditions.
Men who consume excessive alcohol or other intoxicating substances, or those who are in the teens had various behavioral disorders (manifested psychological aggression, verbal abuse, destruction of material values, etc.), to a greater risk of developing depression. Sometimes it is difficult to identify depression as a specific disorder being treated.
And, of course - not all men react the same way to depression. Some withdraw and isolate themselves from society. Some turn to alcohol and drugs, in an attempt to escape from the symptoms of depression. Some men become careless and take more risks, not caring either for themselves or for others. Some, unfortunately, become violent.

The biggest challenge for these people to realize they have a problem and recognize that it is depression, and then turn to a psychologist.
Men, remember, you may be suffering from depression if you have the following problems:

constant sadness, anxiety and a feeling of "emptiness"

feelings of hopelessness or pessimism

You can not relax, you are hypersensitive

losing interest in relaxing activities, as well as sex

lack of energy

hard to concentrate and make decisions, oblivious

suicidal thoughts

Why antidepressants do not work on some people

Scientists have long been searching for an answer to an important question: why some people do not react to certain drugs in their body does not come to a suitable chemical change?

The answer may be hiding in - genes.

University of London scientists have come to the conclusion that the brain occurring genetic changes, which protects the brain from unknown substances. This can be reflected on antidepressants. It takes a doctor to do a simple test that could prescribe the appropriate remedy.Such a test could help doctors and to adapt to each patient the appropriate dose and reduce adverse drug reactions to a minimum.

So - it is not advisable to prescribe antidepressants to everyone in a similar pattern, but recommending these drugs should be personalized, ie. adapt to each individual patient. In fact most doctors can help patients whose genetic material has an accurate picture can be obtained by testing.

Judging by the World Health Organization, depression is the main cause of suicide. Depression now affects about 121 million people worldwide.

Prior studies have addressed the relationship between genetic mutations and the effects of antidepressants, but without differentiation of drugs, so there was some useful discoveries.

A German team of scientists investigating how the three most widely prescribed antidepressant treatments reflect the changes in gene ABCB-1. Just this gene is very important because it protects the brain from molecules that do not belong to the code of a protein called P-gp, which prevents foreign substances from penetrating into the brain tissue.

This research was performed in experimental animals - mice injected with ABCB-1 gene, and then three different antidepressants. They found that a protein in the brain blocks the effect of the first two drugs, but not the third. It was concluded that this particular genetic makeup may receive a positive way only one type of drug, and other antidepressants in this case are useless.

After some genetic changes, the organism can react positively to a different type of medication than before.

As much as 30% of people on antidepressants or very, at least not to those who are doctors prescribing them. An accurate genetic test that would help solve this problem.

As well as many others, the answer is, and this time - in the genes.


Depression and cognitive-behavioral therapy

What is the best way to fight depression and anxiety? One that eliminates the unpleasant situation quickly and definitively. Depression and anxiety caused by the wrong mindset, they often go together.

Studies have shown that 60-70% of people suffering from clinical depression and a feeling of anxiety.Conversely, 50% of patients whose main symptom of anxiety and suffering from depression. Stress reaction is exaggerated in both disorders.

In stressful situations, the depressed person is unable to respond adequately. She is constantly complaining about their difficulties and disappointments, keep them over "rewinds" in my head, so that he is unable to focus on anything else.

Scientists explain that some people go through life with a sense of anxiety. To them it seems that the risk of failure and disappointment lurks on all sides - when applying for a job, when you ask someone a favor, when you schedule a meeting with the person they love. This constant anxiety is threatening to go into a depression.

People with depression appear to overestimate their own problems, and underestimate their own abilities to fight with the problems. They avoid situations that are critical to them, instead of learning the skills with which to cope with critical situations. Very often, the root of the problem is the lack of social skills. Some types of anxiety disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic attacks or social phobia, are associated with depression.

The fact that anxiety is a condition for the development of depression today provides us with great opportunities in the prevention of depression. Anxiety in young people, it is unlikely that they will successfully oppose themselves to this problem. They need help to develop specific mental skills that would help reduce and prevent anxiety.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a good way to fight depression and anxiety. Also, there are effective drugs that are used along with therapy. This therapy is most effective when it is preventive. Patients positively of this type of psychological therapy, because after it the feeling that they themselves could not be cured, its own power with the assistance of a therapist. Also, during treatment the patient adopt patterns of behavior and thinking that become a permanent part of his world view, and it helps when you are finding in a critical situation.

This therapy is short - lasting from 12 to 15 weeks and significant improvements are observed after six weeks.

Depression is the most common in the 48th The

Many people feel depressed in middle age, and studies show that this is indeed the age of great emotional instability. The good news is, the golden years, the level of sentiment is growing.

London scientists have made a diagram that represents the mood throughout life, like the Latin letter U, because the mood is high in youth, in middle age is low, to the old line again soared upward, indicating a good mood.

The study comprised two million patients around the world, from Albania to Zimbabwe, and analyzed data on depression, anxiety, mental and physical health.

On average, a year in which a man is the worst feeling if we look at all of the nation, is the 48th years, provided that there are differences between regions - the average Briton is the worst feeling in the 36th year, and the Portuguese in the 66th year.

One explanation for why people in middle age prone to depression is to realize that they will not be able to accomplish all of your aspirations and to do everything in life is planned and wanted. Another reason could be that, as the years go by, more and more people I know die, they inevitably leads to thinking about our own transience and death.

Scientists believe that about sixty years man resolved with myself these questions, and then performs a quiet period. The best news, experts say, is that if you experience the 70th years of relatively good health, you'd be happy as their twenties.

Dysthymia



Dysthymia is both mood disorders and a milder form of depression characterized by continuous negative attitude towards life. Dysthymia is an ancient Greek term meaning the dys "bad" and thymia which means "state of mind". The ancient Greeks believed that the thymus gland is the source of all emotions. Usually begins quietly in late childhood and adolescence, but can occur later, and is three times more common in žena.Distimija usually takes two, but sometimes more than five years. Periods of dysthymia can alternate with periods of normal mood. Dysthymia usually incapacitates a person in everyday life, but it can affect the work activity and social life. Many people who suffer from dysthymia are beginning to be socially isolated. They gradually declining labor productivity.Dysthymia increases the probability of major depressive episodes. When a major depressive episode develop in people who already suffer from dysthymia, a condition called double depresija.Glavni symptom of depressed mood characterized by sadness, anxiety, mood and loss of interest in usual activities with esteem, difficulty in making decisions and feeling of hopelessness. Depressed mood was present most of the day and more days than not present, as can be seen either as a subjective experience or observed by others, for at least 2 years. While depressive disorder is characterized by episodic flow, flow dysthymia is more chronic and long-lasting. In the early appearance of dysthymia patients often accept their symptoms as a way of life, a psychiatrist to pay only when they become dysfunctional family and the business planu.Simptomi dysthymia resemble symptoms of major depression, but they are usually less pronounced. Usually present only some of the symptoms of major depression. The symptoms of dysthymia include: Eating concentration, difficulty making decisions Restlessness Irritability Social withdrawal or sleep inertia Eating Changes bodily težineKatkad People with dysthymia listed first episode of low mood during childhood or adolescence. If a person develops symptoms of dysthymia after 50th year, usually to suspect the basic physical illness. At least 75% of patients suffering from dysthymia probleme.Liječenje have additional health is carried out in most cases, outpatient treatment in the first place take antidepressants with psychotherapy is an effective adjunct farmakoterapiji.MKB-10: F34.1 DistimijaPrimjer of life: I'm 26 years old. I am married and have two children. For more than two years, I feel tired and depressed. All we do is work hard. I take no pleasure in anything. I'm often grumpy and prone samopodcjenjivanju. However, there are periods that can last for days and weeks when I feel good. Dissatisfied with life and I feel that my closest we do not show enough understanding and attention. Please savjetPrema for the description and duration of your annoyance with you is probably a mental disorder which is called dysthymia. Dysthymia manifest symptoms of depression that its clinical and duration can not be classified as a recurring depressive disorder. This disorder can often be replaced and misdiagnosed as depressive disorder. In this case, the disease is misunderstood and insufficiently liječi.Glavni dysthymia symptom is depressed mood characterized by sadness, anxiety, mood and loss of interest in usual activities. Patients with dysthymia may be nihilistic, with a series of requests and complaints. They can be very tense and rigid, helpless, lost hope, are pessimistic. There may be changes in vegetative functions. Changes in sleep mode, there is a loss of appetite and energy. People with dysthymia are usually scheduled at work and in the family and this is the main reason for their arrival psychiatrist. General dissatisfaction with their lives trying to eliminate the consumption of alcohol or use droge.Što for the course of the disease, it may be different. Primary early onset dysthymia can sometimes be so chronic symptoms that the patient accepts as a part of everyday life. Sometimes dysthymia may develop into a real major depressive disorder, and it is possible that later develop hypomania episode or bipolar disorder. The greatest risk of the disorder is a suicide attempt. For the diagnosis of dysthymia must be depressed mood during most of the day and last for at least two years. With a depressed mood are usually present at least two of the following symptoms: appetite disturbance, sleep disturbance, fatigue or decreased energy, poor concentration, difficulty making decisions, lowered self-evaluation and a sense beznadežnosti.Liječenje dysthymia performed outpatient. Sometimes when you are very pronounced depressive symptoms, or very pronounced disruption of daily functioning, or suicidal ideas are present, then the patient should be treated in hospital. The treatment used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

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