Saturday, December 8, 2012

Emotions and Health

Anger / rage

Anger is a feeling that we experience when we estimate they are an unjustifiable act in a way that endangers our value. Anger, on the communication plan, a request to change another person's behavior.

Behavior that stems from feelings of anger is aggression. Aggressive behavior are non-verbal and verbal cues, and physical assault. Non-verbal signals include frown, twisting his mouth, clamping jaws, shaking, head, straightening his back, fists tightening, stiffening of the body, the tightening fist ... There are also non-verbal signals that reflect an attempt to suppress the intensity of anger or stop the attack: clenching his mouth, avoiding viewing object, the termination of voice, weight distane the property, and so on. In anger, the voice varies with the intensity novmalan, there is a growing, be reduced, but in both cases the other transmits an emergency. Physical assault stemming from anger, to be distinguished from the violence that comes from hate. Attack angry or enraged person is directed at changing the behavior of others, rather than his being. When you achieve a change in behavior, anger weak and aggressive behavior disappears. Hate, on the other hand, is aimed at the other person to suffer, to be destroyed, so that the physical destructiveness does not stop when others change their behavior.
When people estimate that the direct expression of anger and aggression was unacceptable, your feelings can express it in a passive way, indirectly - silence, avoidance, sabotage joint activities, forgetting, delays ...
Of course, people can direct their anger at other people, but to myself, you feel that your behavior to yourself or other loved ones harmed.
Since the purpose of anger that a change in the behavior of another person, and not just to be expressed, we can talk about effective and ineffective expression of anger. Inefficient is the one that does not lead to behavioral change another person, but on the contrary, is often exacerbated conflict.
Effective verbal expression of anger can be achieved if we follow these principles:
- Verbal message must always be sent to the other person's behavior, not on her self ("it bothers me when things scatter all over the place" instead of "you're messy, sloppy and careless");
- The message must be clearly defined and comprehensible to the person to whom it is addressed ("mad tired when I come home from work and found a mess in the house" instead of "on what it looks like, as long as you treat me like a donkey in the house")
- In addition to behavior that causes anger, you need to tick behavior in which others should be involved ("When you decide to go home in the morning to inform me on the phone, not to worry" instead of "Izludeću of care")
- Their impressions and pretpostake should be presented as such, and not facts about the behavior of other people ("It seems to me that you do not care to angažuješ on this project" instead of "You just hurt introduction to our project")
- The message has to be strong enough to cause another corps minimal discomfort necessary to change ponšanaja. However, if the message is too strong, others will get angry because of strong messages unfair and unlikely to change behavior.


Fear is a feeling of a group that is characterized by the feeling that when assessing the risk some of our values, and we can not adequately confront the object or situation which threatens it. Assessment of the ability to remove or avoid such a situation is an important determinant of the quality of fear.
Fear allows immediate mobilization of the organism and readiness for adaptive behavior. He contributes to individual survival and self-protection, and the protection of its values. Adaptive behavior in ugrožavajućoj situation depends on whether we can estimate the escape from it.Seemingly neadaptivno behavior in people who are panicked does serve a purpose: they are in a very short time, try a number of behaviors, hoping to detect behavior that will allow her to escape. It is a learning trial and error type, which however is often not effective. Panic is associated with the experience of time. Panicked people typically believe that there is no time and that he must now find a way out of the situation, which is not always true.
When fear and panic is activated sympathetic nervous system. However, when people estimate that there is no escape from the threatening situation, it activates the parasympathetic nervous system, leading to brake, "icing", fatigue, loss of consciousness, often unwillingly urination or defecation.Although this behavior seems neadaptivno, it is a symbolic escape from unacceptable reality. It seems that it is a relic of a mechanism that exists in many animals: when prey simulates death, it can confuse predators, or if they are members of the same species, passivity is interpreted as a sign of subordination and lectures, which stops the fight.
State of dissociation of consciousness, derealisation and depresonalizacije were observed in response to trauma in which the victim is helpless. Children who are physically frail in comparison to adult abusers, and mentally underdeveloped mature defense use, easy to resort to dissociation as an automatic response to the violence. Dissociation is a primitive mechanism of defense against the unbearable reality and often use this mechanism severely diminish the development of personality.Therefore, in adults who as children were victims of violence, particularly sexual abuse, personality disorders frequently encountered.
A special form of fear, anticipation tied to the future with fear. It can occur in the form of nervousness, worry and anxiety.
Stage fright is a type of fear that is felt in relation to a particular future situation test of his abilities and skills (public speaking, Prime Minister, exam, competition, starting a business, starting the fight ...), for which the entity estimates that may exceed its capacity .
Stimulating porch motivating and mobilizing the person to question his abilities, knowledge and skills required for a situation that is expected and, if possible, even better prepared. Cognitive assessment of the subject who feels nervous incentive is that, generally, the situation is ready for the future, but that this willingness is not complete. Such jitters stimulate a person, raises the level of excitement to be better suited to the particular situation. Stimulating the jitters associated with activation of the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system.
Inhibitory jitters manifested in behavioral avoidance and withdrawal from the entrance to the future situation. To ponašanje je povezano sa procenom da je potpuno nespreman za datu situaciju, da ona prevazilazi njegove granice. Inhibitorna trema aktivira parasimpatikus.
Anxiety is a type of anxiety that you feel when the subject estimates his entire life situation beyond his abilities. A person, therefore, anxious to assess if not thinner us to deal with life's difficulties.According to the psychoanalytic view, anxiety is a reaction to the possibility that an instinctive impulse to avoid forbidden control, appears in the mind and manifests itself in behavior. Anxiety is usually described as a vague fear, just because the hypothetical situation that scares generalized entity. Because of its ambiguity anxiety is a very painful condition, so that the person probegava concretization of the anxiety by pointing to a specific object (phobia) or is expressed through physical symptoms (somatization).
The concern is the kind of fears that some circumstance in which the subject does not have access and / or control could jeopardize nset it deems relevant or entity for which considers itself responsible.


The joy he feels when we estimate that satisfy some of their most important desires, and that strongly affirmed some of our highest values. Feelings of joy stabilize and determine behavior that led to the realization of desires. Joy can be expressed and ritualized into joy and celebration, when the joy of sharing with fellow men. The feeling of joy and happiness of people trying to achieve not only to achieve identified goals and desires, but sometimes in ways that have no basis in real life. For example. using funds that directly stimulate the brain and create a strong feeling of satisfaction or developing an autonomous experience of satisfaction and happiness is completely separated from the events in the real world - release of desires and needs.


Sadness or grief is felt in situations where we estimate that irreversibly lose something that's worth - a loved one, whether she dies or leaves us in another way, an object or property, or any part of the body your body function, social status or the opportunity of a lifetime. The object to lose always has a positive meaning and significance. Grief is by nature a chronic feeling because it maintains the specific subject of the thoughts and ideas of a lost object, or in other words, due to preoccupation with representations of the lost object.
Sadness has three functions: 1) it provides clarification and working through the value system, 2) to restructure the system of values ​​and adapt to new conditions of life, and 3) used the affirmation of existing social relations of the individual. Feelings of sadness runs proeispitivanje our value system in order to understand what is really important to us, and so we try to do, if possible, restore or in a similar future situation and keep looking. Social rituals associated with mourning the death of a loved one is an example of the third function - Solidarity relatives and friends function to support, comfort, and community offering love to point out the remaining life values.
Inadequate response to the loss encountered in individuals for whom the expression of sadness evidence of weakness and inferiority, or that they are afraid to make them grief flooded and turned into a chronic depression or lead to suicide. Such persons or suppress grief, which is more harmful, grief and denial thereby blocking the process of mourning and grief odvajanjai prevent removal and a new adaptation. Silencing or denying the sadness reflected in the following types of controls:
- The feeling of discomfort suppresses food intake through AMENITIES, intense social life, intense sexual activity, and so on.;
- Resulting preoccupation with other facilities in connection with work, children, or something third, with the aim of pushing out the contents of consciousness associated with sadness
- Numbs the feelings of grief through alcohol, drugs or sedative drugs.


First Adaptation

Circular model of emotional reactions
When emotion is not considered in isolation but as part of a process that precede and follow her process, understands that every emotion is part of a complex mechanism that involves a chain of events that began with the stimulus situation and end it. Thus, emotion can be viewed as cognitive-behavioral-physiological circuitry, which paves the way for an adaptive activity. Preparation takes place on several levels: visceral (autonomic nervous and endocrine systems), motor, motivation (emotion gives impetus to behavior) and mental (stimulate mental operations that are specific to the situation and the emotion and very focussed on achieving adaptation).
Cognitive processes involved in a few moments in this process: primary assessment is determining the meaning and significance of the situation by linking it to a frame of reference, a secondary assessment relating to the determination of the meaning of the emotional reactions and choosing behaviors, and finally a tertiary cognition when people trying to make sense of their feelings, that they find the cause.
The chain of events involved in the emotional process are: stimulus situation - perception - apperception (the attribution of meaning) - evaluation (assignment of importance) - physical reaction - ready for action - an opinion and choice behavior - behavior directed only toward stimulusnoj situation.
Stimulus situation may be different. Apart from a few stimuli that causes emotions are universal (eg very loud sound, loss of surface ... that automatically generate fear) based program developed during biological evolution, all other stimuli are the subjective, personal criteria. This means that in an identical situation two people can react quite different sense, and they can not respond.
This situation is perceived and created a mental representation of the situation. What is specific to humans is that many emotions are reactions to the mental images that are representations of external reality, but may be the result of memory or imagination. So, we can react emotionally recalling a situation from the past or imagining a situation still inexperienced.
Then the observed situation of a meaning, so that the stimulus associated with ourselves, with other aspects of the situation, all in accordance with our previous experience. However, an emotional reaction occurs only if the meaning of a situation which we identify, assess, and as important, very important for us. The process of evaluation is linked to our values, which is largely a product of socialization and personal history. Described the primary cognitive processes (perception, evaluation of the meaning and importance of assessment) take place very quickly, automatically and often unconsciously.
If the situation is rated as important, are activated by specific biological programs that are perceived as feelings in the strictest sense. We registvorati different sensations, excitement, visceral and motor responses. All these changes in the body are used to raise the energy level of the body and mobilizes the body for possible action. When we experience an emotional state, we are also motivated by a certain type of behavior. We have a subjective experience of incentives, incentives for action.Objectively, this is expressed through the capture of specific body positions and through a specific facial expression. If the readiness of the action the action arise, then an impulsive behavior. In most situations, stimulate action readiness review which aims to choose the axis of behavior that would be the best response to the estimated stimulus situation. The opinion may also have another function.As is often the case that we are aware of the feelings, but not the meaning and importance of the situation with which he is connected feeling, conscious reflection helps us to understand their feelings and njevogu logic, and to regulate or control it.
All of these processes are used in adaptive behavior, with estimated adaptively from the standpoint of effectiveness of behavior (problem resolution) and social acceptability.
If a person kills his jealous rival, it will eliminate the cause of your unpleasant feelings, but it will itself create a new problem, because her reaction socially unacceptable.
Types of adaptation trigger emotions can be different: change the situation (anger), avoiding or leaving the situation (fear), initiation of mental processes with the ultimate goal of adapting to the new situation frame of reference that can not be avoided (grief). If there is an improvement of adaptation feel pleasant emotions and seeks to maintain state, replays or its reinforcements.
Neadaptivna are those behaviors that stem from unpleasant feelings, and that failing to change the stimulus situation, or, on the other hand, the meaning and importance of the situation for us.
Example: Marina has a chronic conflict in the work place with your boss. She believes that the boss does not understand, does not appreciate her work and devalues. Therefore, the chronically angry.Anger motivates behavior aimed at changing the behavior of others. Neadaptivni ways to respond could be as follows:
- Marina can express anger and rage for the boss and to quarrel with him. This could make the situation worse, get fired or deepen the conflict.
- Marina can "shake out" their anger on someone else, according to which it is safer. For example. by subordinates, family, road users, front-line officials ... However, it currently only gave her relief, would not solve the long term problem with the boss, but would enter into a generalized conflict with other people that her anger might seem unjustified
- Marina can solve the backlog of anger through physical activity, and so can you take some recreation. Indeed, it will relieve tension and physical fatigue will be a real relaxation. However, every morning will be waiting for the same situation at work, and physical activity will become almost a necessity and a way to survive
- Marina can choose taking tranquilizers to relax and find peace of mind. With an appropriate dose and appropriate, otupeće to unpleasant situations at work. But finding soon as dulled in comparison to other situations, including those that are used to bring her pleasure.
What could be an adaptive response modes in Marina's case?
- Marina could improve their social skills and use them to influence the boss to change his behavior.For example. can not ignore it, to be humorous, to emphasize the positive aspects of the boss's behavior, seek the help of colleagues from work ... But if none of this is given and the results show the situation as unchangeable, then there are the following possibilities:
- Marina can leave the problematic situation by providing cancellation or change position within the same labor organization
- Finally, the Marina can change the way we perceive chief's behavior. That means you would have to change the meaning and / or importance attributed to the situation with the boss. If you do this, be accepted for who is the head, and realized that his behavior is his own problem.

Second Communication

Darwin was among the first to recognize the importance of emotions in human communication. He felt that emotions serve as the first means of communication between mother and infant: a smile to communicate support and encourage the child to communicate disagreement frown. Through the expression of emotion perceive sympathy in others it relieves pain and increases pleasure, thus strengthening mutual good feeling. Movements give vibrancy and energy of our words, they reveal the thoughts and intentions of others more than words that can be forged.
Darwin emphasized the biological and conditioning of emotional expression, thought that some expressions of emotion are lagging stocks which once had a clear adaptive function, even though they lost that position, have social and communicative function in the human population.Unfortunately, psychologists have not been followed in a number of Darwin's theory of evolution-the adaptive value of emotions until the 60s.
Social environment is constantly changing and it is essential for our survival. For our behavior is very important to evaluate the emotions of other people in our neighborhood, because they tell us about their intentions and action tendencies. Assessment of emotions is a difficult task because the information sent to us by others through facial expression, body posture, verbal communication and behavior are often contradictory. When someone compliments and acts kindly, yet we can "feel" hostility, jealousy, envy or contempt. We may also behind an open and provocative behavior suggests benevolent attitude participant.
Very much we can learn by other people's emotional reactions. The quality and intensity of feelings expressed can tell us what is the relationship between people and how they perceive their environment. If a person shows anger, we can assume that the relationship in which it occurs is characterized by feelings of threat, insult or injury. If a person experiences anxiety in a relationship, then that relationship involves an unspecified threat, and is accompanied by the desire to avoid or escape from the threat.
Based on the feelings we can determine what is important to an individual, what is the worth of his / her subjective point of view. Specifically, we do not experience emotional arousal about events that are important to us. As soon as you show emotions, it means that something is happening which is important for us, even if we deny it.
Observing the characteristic way of emotional reactions, we can discover much about the beliefs that an individual has about himself and the world. Someone who is often fearful or depressed probably has low self-esteem. A person with others often manifests suspicion, contempt or envy probably have negative beliefs about human nature and intentions of others.
Emotions are driving not only our behavior, but the behavior of others with whom we are in communication. Every feeling has a certain message to the other people, some expectation of the desired reaction. So, for example, regardless of why someone is angry, he is always a second call to change their behavior, either to stop doing what the subject matter, either to begin to do what the subject believes that others should do.
In the following table we present the key messages and expected responses for a range of emotions, according Milivojevic.

Message emotion desired reaction
Anger Change behavior! The guilt and apology
Fears Threaten me something stronger than me protection
You are not worth contempt enough! Humility
Satisfaction My wish is granted! Satisfaction
You hate evil because you hate me! Fear and disappearance
Envy You think you're better than me! Confirmation of the value of the subject
Shame I know you think I did OK confirms the value of the subject
The guilt I'm good and condemn their bad behavior Forgiveness
You are worthy of love a human being and I want you in my world back a intimate love
Jealousy I'm afraid you're going to go with another confirmation of love

Emotional Intelligence?

The ability to recognize the emotions of others, the ability to control their own emotional responses and empathy are important for establishing and maintaining harmonious interpersonal relationships and constructive resolution of interpersonal conflicts. These abilities are apparently independent of general or specific intellectual ability. Therefore, the concept of emotional intelligence emerged, which was especially popularized in the late works of D. Goleman. However, it is debatable whether there is justification for the existence of such a construct, given that many previously identified and studied aspects of social intelligence.
According Torndajku, social intelligence is the ability to understand other people and to act wisely in interpersonal relationships. Gardner believes that intelligence is a complex construct, and that makes it more of relatively independent intelligences, including interpersonal intelligence. Gardner is seen as a stack multiple, interdependent capabilities such as emotional sensitivity (ability to identify feelings and desires of other people); social analytics (capacity to understand the essence of social situations and motives of human actions), self-control (successfully conduct affects their own); sociability ( the ability of light to establish interpersonal relationships), social tolerance and adaptability (ability to respect different views and uspeštnog resolving interpersonal conflicts), dominance (leadership and successful management) etc.. Such a construct is described and includes what is considered the essence of emotional intelligence.
We believe that the aforementioned constructs skills primarily related to emotional control skills and communication, which are smaller extent determined by hereditary factors (as opposed to general intelligence), and for the most part are acquired during early development, but can be significantly improved and later.

Emotional development

Potoji more ideas on how to develop emotional richness of life that has grown as a man and the emotions associated with certain situations. Psychologists behaviorist tradition emphasizes lessons learned. They explain that the child learns that certain emotions are tied to a particular context, the situation, through classical conditioning, instrumental learning and teaching throughout the model.
Emotional reactions may be related to a previously neutral situation, so the stimulus that provokes emotion gives the pair a neutral stimulus. Let us remember the experiment with little Albert. While playing with the white mouse, Albert has been subjected to extremes of sound in a young child who causes fear. After just a few repetitions, Albert began to be afraid of the white mouse. Many phobias are acquired exactly the same way. However, emotions can not be conditioned on every single neutral charm. Conditionality is easy when there is so. biological preparedness prefer if connection between stimulus and response is biologically meaningless. Therefore, it is easy to cause a reaction of fear to an animal, but it is not easy or almost impossible to do if a neutral stimulus such use. glasses or a cup.
Instrumental learning may also explain the development of certain emotional responses. Infant cries when she is hungry, has another physiological need or feel physical discomfort. However, if his crying mother responds by taking recourse to arms and gentle, the infant will learn that crying and calling her mother asks her attention.
Finally, many children learn behaviors by observing and imitating their parents, older brothers and sisters. In this way they can learn to respond emotionally to certain situations and depicting models.For example. If a parent is afraid of dogs, the child may learn to fear him react to dogs or other animals, although only had no previous experience. A parent who is acting aggressively in a situation of frustration will pass such behavior in their child.

However, poor learning theory can explain how certain emotions arise in the development and why there is a certain sequence. They explain how the existing emotions can link you to some new situations or to achieve a new communications role.
Katherine Bridges has watched as the emotions of children from several days to two years. In Figure __ shows the results of her research. It has been found to be qualitatively new emotions always appear in the same order, although it does not occur in all children at the same age. Shortly after the birth of children is a general and diffuse arousal. For this situation, gradually distinguish, differentiate specific emotions. By the third month, a distinguished general state of comfort and neprijatlnosti. One can, over time, develop a variety of specific positive and negative emotions. From the general state of dissatisfaction are differentiated feelings of anger, disgust and fear, and the general state of satisfaction and pride to differentiate love, first toward adults, and later their children.

By Milivojevic, newborn shows manifestations of comfort and discomfort, which is manifested as a generalized, diffuse and non-specific reactions. Since emotions are primarily psychological phenomena, the emergence of a sense of the prior existence of psychic structure that allows it. When the child is able to define a cognitive context, that is, when it is able to attribute specific meaning and significance of a given stimulus, it is able to feel and express specific feeling. Tables showing the occurrence of certain feelings in certain months of a child's life show, according to this author, the maturation of his frame of reference, his cognitive and evaluative development. Cognitive and emotional development are mutually dependent relationship, they are aspects of a single psychological process.
However, recall that infants and young children react emotionally through subkortikalnog times, which provides automatic assessment vitally important stimuli and emotional responses without the involvement of higher cognitive processes.


Chronic negative emotions are a risk to the mental and physical health. In this section we will deal with some of the factors that are associated with negative emotional states, such as stress, helplessness and pessimism experience and consider how these factors influence, through negative emotions, the mental and physical health.


Stress is the process of transactions between the individual and the environment. Events set for individual additional requirements, he may see it as a threat, loss or challenge. The process of evaluation of events in the environment, feelings that arise and consequently the accompanying physiological changes, the way we respond and adapt to those requirements is described as stress.
Stressors they are all sources of danger and challenges in relation to the body, that it may cause damage or loss. Stress does not always have to be a part of the environment, it can also be a symbolic threat, something that reminds us of a previous loss or other psychological representation danger threatened. This means that, for example. unwanted thoughts or dreams about the stressor can also cause stress. Examples of external stress can be severe physical disease, an important exam, traffic accidents, fire, earthquake, demanding and responsible job with short deadlines, divorce, family strife, and the birth of a child, changing jobs, buying an apartment, weddings, etc..

Walter Cannon, mentioned earlier in the section on theories of emotion, was among the first used the term stress has clearly suggested that the physiological and psychological components. He believed that stress is a potential cause of medical problems as well as emotional stress can cause physiological disorders prorode.

Hans Sally further elaborated this concept. He felt that any stimulus that is harmful to the body caused by a single, non-specific response of the body - the so-called. general adaptation syndrome, which is always the same, regardless of what causes it. When the body becomes aware of the harmful effects of stimulus, there is an alarm reaction. The body is at this stage prepared to resist the stressor.Enhancing the function of the sympathetic nervous system, and consequently cardiovascular and respiratory functions, and large amounts of glucocorticoids the body acquire the energy needed to react. At this stage there are different emotions, depending on the type of stressor assessment. The next phase of resistance in which the body uses different coping mechanisms and often carry out adequate adaptation to new circumstances. Although at this stage the body provides a strong and constant resistance stressor, there is less resistance when compared to other noxious stimuli. If this process is often repeated or long duration due to chronic exposure to stressor, your body is at risk of irreversible physiological damage. This phase is called Sally phase of exhaustion due to resource depletion adaptivih regularly repeated throughout the body fight stress. When this stage performances, potentially different psychophysiological disorders (formerly nazivanih psychosomatic diseases) such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, ulcers in the duodenum, headaches, skin diseases and others.

Lazarus has developed a model of stress, which emphasizes the importance of psychological factors such as the prevalence estimates. To make the event even a stressor, it shall be deemed as threatening, harmful or particularly demanding in relation to the body.
There are some typical estimates that are associated with the appropriate emotions. If we estimate that for some events already suffered damage or loss suffered (leaving us a loved one, a storm has destroyed our property) usually occurs sadness, and anger - especially if we estimate that this loss is unfair.
Threat assessment relating to the perception of future risk. The possibility that they do not pass, the possibility that a loved one leaves us, we estimate that the change in job may lose some valuable colleagues and their habitual mode, the ability to show the incompetent new job assignment, they are all different threat assessments. Common emotions that occur as fear, anxiety, tremors, caution and suspicion like.
If you judge the event as a challenge means that we see on our ability to bring any benefit, quality of life, improvement of personal development or simply achieving some of our goals and desires. This means that we estimate that we have enough ability and skills to deal with change and to draw from it something positive. Associated feelings are excitement, hope, anticipation, optimism ...

It is important to be aware that a large number of events and changes in our lives are not inherently good or bad. Any change, no matter how much desired and anticipated, brings some losses and some danger.

For example. getting the job entails the loss of daily routine, less free time, less frequent contact with friends and family, the possibility that we are not mature enough for some tasks, but also carries many positive aspects for which we, in the first place, and would like to employ: income, self-fulfillment in the profession, new knowledge and skills, new friendships, and others.
To a large extent it depends on us how we evaluate an event, and then how we feel and how we act.Changes in society, for example. specifically in the area of ​​education for all employees represent a potential stressor. At the same stressor different reactions: some optimism with a stake in change, working on their development, strive to innovate in their work, share experiences and learn a lot. For this position, and further commitment usually are not paid extra, and have less free time. However, the ability to control the change, their own participation in the change, feeling of success followed by positive emotions, and a reward in itself. Such individuals are also more satisfied with their lives, and the practice of his profession.
On the other hand, many individuals of events that require them change the current way of working, and what is particularly difficult, change the value system, evaluated primarily as a loss or threat.They are scared, anxious, angry, bitter, and provide strong resistance to anything that is new. In this way, we not only make more difficult a professional development and better results at work, but are chronically overwhelmed by negative feelings, tend to be in conflict and at a higher risk for a variety of emotional disorders.

An important part of the response to stressful events is coping behavior. After assessing the situation and experience appropriate emotions, make decisions about the mode of action, coping with stress.There are different types of coping: problem focused on overcoming the (information search, an act to try to change the situation), p. focused on seeking social support and p. focused on emotions (instead of dealing with the problem, trying in various ways to alleviate unpleasant emotional states by taking drugs, relaxation, etc.). There is no one best way of coping. If the stressor is not under our control (loss of a loved one) then attempts to solve the problem in vain, for we can not remove such a stressor. However, it is believed that the prevalence of problem focused, to seek information and to provide social support for adaptive and positive outcomes leads.

It is believed that people differ in terms of the preferred styles of coping. The dominant way of overcoming that one uses in a variety of stressful situations is overcoming her style, and it depends on personality traits such as self-control, optimism-pessimism, emotional stability, and the like.

One of the important factors that affect our emotional and behavioral response to stress is the feeling of control over stressful situations. If an individual believes that there is no control, their behavior can not change anything, in other words, if you have experience of helplessness, it is unlikely that the event can be estimated as a challenge and use some of the active ways of coping. The experience of powerlessness is strongly associated with negative feelings and the manifestation of emotional difficulties, mostly with depression and anxiety.
According Seligmenu, is learned helplessness. If you have been exposed to the circumstances in which we had no control over events, we become helpless. This experience has taught us that there is no sense in trying to do anything because it will not have an impact. What is dangerous is the experience of helplessness that we are no longer able to recognize when something is beyond our control - even when we have the opportunity to change something, we will not even try to do.Furthermore, due to the passivity of learned helplessness in one situation can be easily generalized to other situations. It seems that decades of experience with uncontrollable events generally affects the motivation and ability damage assessment of the situation. Especially when you experience a negative impact upon the potential for control of the situation suddenly lose that option. It is, for example, the case of the elderly or people with illnesses that significantly deplete the ability of independent living (damage to the spinal cord after an accident, severe fractures, kidney disease, cancer, eye damage, etc.). It is therefore important to allow such people to have responsibility for some aspect of their daily life and to be as active as possible. This reduces the feeling of helplessness, emotional state improves and speeds up recovery and rehabilitation.

Optimism and pessimism are the general tendency to experience how the world and life. Optimism is the tendency to see the world as a largely benign, events, mostly as under our control and we expect generally positive outcomes of our actions. Optimists tend to look on the positive side of things, instead we focus on the negative aspects of which still exist. Pessimism is the opposite tendency.Research shows that optimism is associated with doživljanjem greater control over events, using active mechanisms of coping with stress and trying to change unfavorable or adverse situations and faster recovery from illness. Pessimists are preoccupied with thoughts of negative events that have occurred or may occur. This preoccupation leads Furthermore, the use of the weaker social support and depression. Pessimists more likely to use health care services, are considered to be at high risk of developing life-threatening diseases are more difficult to adjust to the diagnosis and treatment in case of illness.

Special psychological discipline, emerged in clinical psychology - Health Psychology - deals with the application of psychological knowledge in the promotion and maintenance of health, prevention and treatment of diseases and identification of etiologic and diagnostic correlates of health, illness and related dysfunction.

Hippocrates: "As you should not try to treat your eyes, not your head cure, treat or head without a body, just as you should not attempt to cure the body without a soul ... because part can never be well if the whole is not well «

Numerous studies have confirmed that there is an association between chronic negative emotions and physical ailments. Most have evidence of chronic hostility. Hostile people there are among the most kolericima. These people are suspicious and competitive mood, so often come into conflict with others. It was confirmed that hostile people are more prone to cardiovascular disease, as well as behaviors that threaten the health of the whole (smoking, alcohol), so it is with this group as a whole higher mortality.
Findings on depression are more controversial because depression can be both a cause and consequence of physical illness. Depressed mood is characteristic of the melancholic. Because depression has shown that the effect of suppression of the immune system (reduces its effectiveness), most attention has been paid to the relationship between depression and cancer, and the results ambiguous. Besides the possibility that depression directly affects physical health through effects on the immune system, and it is associated with a series of risky behavior: abusive substances, poor social relationships, eating disorders, and sleep.
Finally, suppression of thoughts and feelings is also harmful to health. It has been shown that suppression of thought leads to a significant reduction in the level of CD3 T cells, whereas expression of emotion through symbolic activity (writing) increases the number of T lifmocita levels.

We conclude that the tendency psychophysiological and other diseases occur as a result of emotional vulnerability, innate predisposition to certain diseases and adverse early experiences.

Finally, we draw attention to the connection between emotions and personality in the field of temperament and emotional control as an important factor in the response to frustration.


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Robert J. Sternberg: In Search of the Human Mind, Harcourt Brace & Company, Orlando, 1995

Richard Lazarus: Emotion and Adaptation. Oxford University Press, New York, 1991

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Howard Friedman: Self-Healing Personality, in Encyclopedia of Mental Health, Vol 3, Academic Press, New York, 1998

Zarko Trebjesanin Dictionary of Psychology, Poles Culture, Belgrade, 2000

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