As with other emotions, moods, and the shades are innumerable and very subtle gradations. Grumpy mood can be "sour", "brown", "dark", "bitter"; sad mood may exude nostalgia; tense mood can be packed with anxiety, mood can be cheerful cheerfully, cordially, and so on.
Our observations show a tendency to give a realistic picture of the situation outside. Sometimes it just looks like the contrast between external things and our inner mood, the one factor that enhances the mood. For example, we are even more tortured contrast between our "dark" mood and "gaiety" of those around us. At other times just fit between our moods and surroundings look enhances mood (gloomy landscape agrees with our somber mood, cheerful music agrees with our cheerful mood).Sometimes a small change in the immediate environment can lead to sudden and unexpected changes in an individual's mood.
Unlike mood, which is durable and relatively uniform state of feeling, affect the short-lived emotional experience that occurs rapidly, has great intensity and turbulent flow and containing extreme physical and mental changes (panic fear, uncontrollable anger, endless joy). Affects most commonly occur as a reaction to the threat to the vital and social existence. The emotional state is often a narrowing of consciousness, with the intellectual processes greatly hampered, no self-control, rational behavior, no respect for basic moral and legal norms. Emptying the heat of the moment was favorable for mental health and balance. If the affect "not empty", it is possible to cause psychosomatic disorders.
Influence of emotion on other psychic FUNCTIONS
Certain moods, particularly intense affects that can affect the performance of the specific manner in other mental functions:
l. Sudden intense affect may change the state of mind (emotionally unstable mother loses consciousness instantly to the news that her son was seriously injured in a car accident). Also, intense affect can lead to the narrowing of consciousness which is very important in determining the defendant's mental capacity.
Second Euphoric and depressed mood disturb the normal attention and causing various types of distractions.
3rd Under the influence of intense affective changes perceptive ability and can occur various sensory deception (illusion due to the affect, and even hallucinations).
4th Under the influence of a particular mood or affect may occur falsifying memories which are causing disturbances in memory.
5th Disruptive affect logical thinking and reasoning. Ill various moods lead to misinterpretation of reality.
6th Powerful affects indirectly influence impulsive behavior. The cause constriction affects awareness and conscious control over blocking instincts and lead to impulsive, instinctive actions (aggression, sexual assault).
7th Quantitative lowering of mood (indifference, apathy) will cause reduction. Voluntary activity can be disrupted due to the simultaneous occurrence of two opposite emotions (ambivalence).
DISCHARGE OF EMOTIONS
Every emotion, and in particular has a tendency to affect the motor discharges - react. In animals, it is the only existing discharge. Man, thanks to his top control mechanisms able to inhibit certain limits or modifies motor discharge. This can be achieved in the following way:
First Abreaction of affect through a chain action, speech, shouting, rlač, movements etc., Is the healthiest way from the point of discharge affect the functioning of organs. Abreaction protects organs from psychosomatic disorders. However, the man as a social being would not be able to successfully adapt if it affects every motor emptied. Thus, the biological adaptation suffers for successful social adaptation, and the victims body parts (ulcers and duodenal ulcers, heart attacks, etc..).
Second Intellectual processing emotions is the highest form of modification of emotional discharge.Using inhibition and logical thinking, a man more or less manages to channel the discharge of affect without social consequences and without prejudice born of body organs. Ignoring the person who is the offender, ignoring the insult itself as a provocateur of affect ("It does not matter what you say, but who's offended").
3rd Conscious suppression of emotions is common and is a major cause of disorders of the vegetative system. Subdued affect not empty but the vegetative nervous system disrupts organ function.Sometimes it affects only temporarily dim and after a short time abreaguje.
4th Suppression of affect is the suppression of unpleasant experiences in the unconscious part of the psyche. Engram (a trace of something in the brain) in the depths of reproduction is not accessible, memorable. It should be added that not only information but also suppressed the affect that accompanied that information. And in the depths of the unconscious, the information remains bound to affect their team is called the complex. Repressed complex tends to break into the consciousness and the affective part of the complex that is stronger and stronger the tendency.
5th Projection affect the transfer, localization of affect in their own objects and people around you.Projection is an unconscious mechanism (tennis ace when placing the ball into the net, "white" as the culprit racket bad move).
6th Irradiation is the discharge of affect on innocent people. For example, the hatred of a particular person is transferred and discharged to people who are in some way related to that person (relatives, friends, supporters, countrymen, residents, colleagues ro profession, etc..).
7th Emotional transfer (transmission) is a phenomenon described by Freud, and that occurs in the course of psychotherapy. Neurotic patients, emotionally regress to the level of the child. Emotions as children were condemned by the mother during psychotherapy transferred to a psychotherapist (with love addiction, love and hate with the rivalry and the like.). Through the maturation of transfer price is the success of therapy.
PATHOLOGY OF EMOTIONS
All disorders of emotional life can be divided into:
A. Quantitative, and
A. QUANTITATIVE ROREMEĆAJI
Quantitative emotional disorders are divided into two groups:
a) Reduction or elevation of mood: apathy, euphoria, depression, etc..;
b) The discrepancy between the intensity of provocation and emotional responses: emotional lability, irritability and abnormal pathological affect.
l. Apathy is a state with temporary or permanent shut-down feelings, reactions, complete indifference. Sometimes there may be a constitutional phenomenon or be caused by external factors.It occurs in mental patients (schizophrenics), severe organic patients (tumor of the frontal lobe of the brain), the psychotic, hysterics, etc..
Second Euphoria is evident cheerfulness, glee, penchant for jokes, insouciance. All this is very striking, and usually accompanied by increased movements and the heightened govorljivošću.
3rd Depressed mood - manifested by the patient is sad, depressed, worried, dejected, obsessed with "black" thoughts, prone to suicide, especially at the onset of illness or at the end, when everyone seems to be his mental condition was much improved. Depressed mood can occur for many reasons, and so we know:
- Endogenous depression;
- Exogenous or reactive depression;
- Organic (symptomatic) and depression
- Involucione depression.
4th Extension affect a disorder in which one affects lasts much longer and occurs in many psychopaths and epileptics.
5th Emotional lability is characterized by very short duration of affective states and its changes under the influence of insignificant or spontaneous experience. It is typical for a small desu, senile and organic patients.
6th Abnormal (pathological) razdražnjivost consists of inadequate, excessive intensity of affect that leads to a tumultuous response - a very insignificant reasons to react intensely. Occurs in hysterical people, psychopaths, epileptics, people with impaired frontal cortex part of the brain, the alcoholic intoxication and in schizophrenic patients.
7th Emotional incontinence is characterized by the inability to brake affective expression, and affects occur suddenly and abruptly and go. It occurs in patients after stroke, alcoholics, etc..(Sudden irrational rlač).
8th Pathological affect. Its characteristic is that there is a striking discrepancy between the cause (cause) and the intensity of affect. For small or insignificant cause, responds wonderfully tumultuous heat of passion that leads to a striking effect on the affective state of consciousness is shrinking or growing even unconscious. In its affective reaction is currently on the occurrence of provocation, and there's no time like the latency of abnormal irritability. It has been said that this "short circuit response." Pathological affect short duration, the engine completely depleted, resulting calming and relaxing, and there is always a partial or complete amnesia for details or seo event, during the period narrowed consciousness.
9th Affective rigidity. It is characterized by very slow changes of affect. The patient takes a long time to "get used" to a situation and that their affective expression matched to emerging changes.
V. QUALITATIVE ROREMEĆAJI
Qualitative changes of affect are a regular occurrence in many, especially schizophrenic patients. In schizophrenia cognitive function independently of the personality of the emotional part. In psychiatric practice that gap called the dissociation of personality. The most important qualitative disturbances of emotions that are both a sign of schizophrenia split personality, the paratimija, paramimija and emotional resonance defect (defect affective relationships).
l. Paratimija the ideo-affective dissociation. It is split between the cognitive part of the personality ("ideology") and emotional experience ("affective"). What brings joy to many patients causes a feeling of sadness, grief, resentment, and vice versa.
Second Paramimija. The disorder consists of emotionally-mimičkoj dissociation. Feelings are adequate, joyful events causing patients a feeling of joy, but his expression is paradoxical: muscle structure exhibits mimicry of sadness or crying facial expression. And, conversely, at the funeral of his cousin, whose death he normally complains, starts to laugh.
3rd Defect affective relationships. Under the affective attitude (resonance) means "addictive" properties of emotions. The joy of our friends and we experience as an emotion of joy. As if to us there is a resonator that provides mutual crossing and the reception of emotional experience. A man can hardly experience the intense emotion if it is lonely. To experience the intense emotions require the presence of at least one other person. Intense sadness, depressed patients transferred to us and our mood becomes sad. His manic patient euforičko transferred to the present mood. Exceptions are schizophrenics in which there is a defect of affective relations. Their mood does not go to us, not our affective expression can not affect it, nor can it change the affective experience.
Emotion is a complex state of mind has a desire, a feeling of attraction or repulsion and thought.Emotions only seemingly chaotic belong to the mental sphere. It is an illusion because the emotions are interrelated. All emotions come from the original two: love and hate. Love and hate can be directed to different categories of people - stronger, weaker or equal. The number of possible combinations of the six emotions, three of which come from love, three hate. When combined with the many mental factors, emotions are multiplied and become more diverse.
A life that is manifested in different forms, the different plans, one is the same expression of divine life and a spiritual unity. What is in accordance with the law of unity brings happiness and vice versa.If we pay attention to the emotions that are based on love or hate, happy or depressed the moment, we will observe that love goes together with happiness and hatred in hand with poverty ..........
Growing and breeding virtues to a healthy and correct emotional life. It is important to lead a life of virtue, as a prerequisite for the higher life of the Spirit, but he can not be a substitute for that life. The goal of human endeavor is not virtuous living, but self-realization. Then one can enter into the peace and be beyond the reach of turmoil, suffering and delusion of the world.
Clean emotion involves removal of bad feelings: hate, jealousy, envy, wrath, pride, possessiveness, etc. and good breeding, such as love, good will, high esteem, tolerance, gentleness, sensitivity and compassion.
In the interests of healthy life it is necessary to make contact with their feelings, open up, get to know them, to make their re-education and make it more spontaneous flow, learn to express them at the right time at the right place and the right way to know when we can let their feelings, When there is an opportunity for ..........
It should ... stand at the door armed with a heart. Love is not the subject of the matter. There is no love, but being that loves you. How we loved so much in love. Human love is possible with those who have similar ideas of life and love as we do.
Love is a universal phenomenon, a man opens the door to a multi-dimensional world, a world of miraculous. True love is unselfish and does not ask for anything in return. Finds no joy in giving.Pure unselfish love draws similar energy itself. We can not accept what you have ever made.
It would be useful to begin with to determine what emotions are NOT. Thus, emotions are not
- Feel, but a person can only be aware of the sensory components of emotion, for example. when the quality of the subjective experience of emotion suppressed because the ego-dystonia. Behavior then it usually is not adaptive to the situation that caused the emotion (taking sedatives, alcohol, relaxation instead of resolving the situation if you feel only a vague discomfort or tension);
- Behaviors that flow from them. This is the case only in "acting out" where emotions directly discharged through impulsive behavior. This belief often leads to people to prevent themselves feel a sense because they are afraid of losing control, but also leads to actual loss of control. Otherwise, the person has a choice reaction when she is aware that something feels. Features are different: be aware of feelings, but they do not express, express feelings non-verbally, to express verbally, expressed through action aimed at a specific goal ... A particular problem if the behavior triggered by unconscious emotions.
- Estimates and judgments about what they feel ("I feel stupid").
The literature on emotions reveals that the authors often focus only on certain structural or functional aspects of emotion. Some authors consider the emotions only in terms of their neurophysiological basis, or just deal with the expression of emotion. Other authors put emotion into a broader framework of motivation and analyze the impact of emotions on behavior run.
A complete, holistic understanding of emotions, taking into account the structural and functional approaches and defines emotion as a special kind of neural processes that lead to the initiation of a complex and expressive behavior of a sentient state or quality of consciousness that has motivational and adaptive function.
Therefore, a comprehensive definition of emotions could read like this:
Emotion is a reaction to the stimulus that the subject is described as an important, and that visceral, motor, motivation and mental preparation for the adaptive enterprise activity.
(Zoran Milivojevic, 2000)
In addition to the basic concept of emotions, there are a number of other concepts in the field related to the emotions of a special quality. Thus we find in the literature the following terms: affective tone, affects mood and sentiment. Their meaning will briefly describe.
Affective or emotional tone tone refers to the basic qualities of comfort and discomfort that may be regarded as the most elementary sense, but as the quality of other, more complex feelings. For example. pride is a pleasant and unpleasant feeling anxiety.
Affect is the emotional experience that occurs rapidly, has great intensity and turbulent flow and is followed by extreme physical and mental changes. Examples affect the panic fear, terror, excitement or unbridled rage. Affective states characterized by "narrowing of consciousness," and consequently reduced self-control impulsive behavior, and inhibition of intellectual processes. It is not surprising, therefore, that in the states of affect can occur uncontrollable, vicious, aggressive or autoagresivnog behavior. If the long-term affects are repressed, can create psychosomatic or neurotic symptoms.
In the literature, the notion of affect is sometimes used as a synonym for the term emotion. So speaking of affective regulation, affective bonding and the like.
The mood is a feeling that the relatively low intensity long duration. To take on a sense of shape and become chronic mood, a person needs to have a long-term or external situation or the chronically preoccupied with certain mental representations. This preoccupation can be conscious or unconscious. Moods permeate all our experiences and behaviors, provide emotional color perception of the world and other people and yourself. Moods are associated with temperament.Sangvinici are prone to chronic positive feelings (joy, cheerfulness, serenity), and melanholici negative mood (depressed, sullen, gloomy, anxious mood).
Sentiment is complex, acquired a relatively stable mental structure that includes many different emotions and attitudes directed at a particular object (this can be a person, idea or institution). For example. patriotism (love of country, willingness to sacrifice herself for her own good, hatred of the enemy, etc..) is a system of interconnected feelings, attitudes and values associated with their land.
STRUCTURE OF EMOTIONS
Emotions are three groups of issues: organic changes (heart rate, blood pressure, expansion and contraction of blood vessels, breathing, muscle tension ...), the subjective experience of emotion and changes in the external behavior (facial expressions, gestures, posture ...)
The relationship between organic changes that occur in the subjective experience of emotion, and emotions are trying to explain various physiological theory of emotion.
Physiological theory of emotion
The first theory proposed, independently of one another V. And James K. Lange, and is therefore called the James-Lange theory. Its default setting contradict the understanding of emotions.Specifically, we believe that to meet the particular situation feel the emotion, and then, as a result for his feelings, comes to organic changes, which also feel. For example. first sad, then cry or get scared first, and then begin to tremble. James and Lange found that the opposite case: when you perceive a stimulus, react to physical changes (such as muscle contraction, heart palpitations, shortness of breath ...) which then leads to a subjective perception of emotions. Emotion, according to these authors, awareness of bodily changes. So, according to this theory, first cry, and then we realize that we are sad, or when us find a burglar in the house, you first begin to tremble, and then to recognize as fear.
The biggest critic of this theory was in fact James's brother in law - Walter Cannon. Cannon believed that James-Lange theory can not be correct for several reasons. First, different emotions are associated with the same or nearly identical body changes, so how can one and the same physical condition can cause different emotions? Second, many body organs react slowly, and feelings arise almost immediately after perceiving certain situations. Furthermore, if you cause bodily changes someone else, rather than emotional stimulus, people will not feel the emotions that correspond to these physical changes. For example. when you are chopping onions, our eyes tears. However, in this situation I do not feel sad, cry though. Finally, cutting the sensory pathways that lead from the internal organs to the brain, animals were still showing the expression of emotion. Because Xenon ideas further elaborated F. Bard, a notion that we will now expose known as Cannon-BARD theory.
According to Cannon-Bardovoj theory, the emotions caused by the impulses that come from receptors in the way they pass first through the thalamus. From the thalamus to send impulses to the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus. Activation of the hypothalamic Pulse automatically sent to the internal organs, making physical changes occur, while in the cortex shape the subjective experience of emotion.
In part, both theories are right. In fact, Cannon and Bard have recognized the importance of the brain, to experience emotions, and James and Lange noted that information on physical POMENA affect our awareness of the emotional state we experience.
Physiological theories were further elaborated by numerous authors. Among them we mention PAPEC and MacLean who discovered that in addition to the thalamus, hypothalamus and the cortex, an important role in the generation of emotions with other parts of the limbic system, particularly the hippocampus and amygdala. Further clarification of the role of the limbic system and the definition of the neural pathways that are responsible for the emergence of emotions facilitate research in the neurosciences. The most important are present later after show most influential cognitive theory of emotions.
Cognitive theories of emotion
Cognitive theories are introduced as an important factor in the development of emotion cognitive assessment of the situation in which the organism finds and it reacts.
Šahter-Singer's theory - according to these authors, the emotional arousal of the organism is usually vague and fuzzy, so we do events in the social environment provide the necessary information on which emotion we experience. Emotional arousal in a hostile situation interpretiraćemo as anger, while well-intentioned, happy environment to the same physical condition as interpretiraćemo luck.Thus, the emergence of emotions, we need two pieces of information: one of our physiological state, and the other about a situation where such a condition was physiological. Therefore, this theory is called the two-factor theory.
Example: In one experiment, an attractive woman interviewed by the boys. One group of young men were interviewed in the volatile small bridge of rope, high above the river, while the other group interviewed on solid ground. During the discussion of women were interviewed gave their phone number. Over 60% of young men who spoke with the woman at the Causeway called on the phone, compared with only 30% of those interviewed on solid ground. The study authors explain this result by the young men interviewed in an uncertain, unstable in their emotional arousal of fear interpreted as a sign of attraction towards attractive interviewees.
Lazarus puts cognition theory in the first place, a process that precedes the emergence of emotions.According to Lazarus, we first carry primary assessment of what is going on and trying to determine the consequences of the event for us. For example. If we are approaching the abandoned waif, one wonders whether he would us to ask for money, do you want to talk or zapodene to attack us ...Depending on the assessment of the situation will feel fear, anger, compassion, interest ..... Then we perform secondary assessment that we have made a decision what to do. Depending on our dietary assessments, and resulting emotions, we will have different tendencies to respond: we can go pick over the bag looking for some change, we can turn and run, stop and wait for the issue, turn your head to the other side and go through an accelerated pace .. . Later, depending on the course of events, we may need to re-evaluate the situation. If we are in fear started to move away, and I hear behind me shouts, "Hey, just wanted to ask how many hours ...." we will probably be forced to change our assessment of the situation: when we realize that we have overestimated the danger, the fear will disappear and there may be a completely different feeling, for example. shame, embarrassment or relieved that we no threat. In any case, always precedes emotion cognition.
Kind of elaboration of this theory, by our author Zoran Milivojevic, we present later.
Unlike Lazarus, Zajonc believes that cognition and emotion are independent. He believes that the basic emotions, because in the course of evolution occurring prior opinions. Therefore, Zajonc argues, it would not be meaningful to the development of cognition precedes emotion. After all, the animals know how to scare predators or attack prey, and not to enter into the complex processes of assessment. And people often know what you feel before you are aware of what they think about the situation.
This jumble of conflicting views be reconciled and harmonized with the knowledge of some recent discoveries in the field of neuroscience. One of the important discoveries made by studying ice emotion of fear in rats.
When we perceive a stimulus, information from primary receptors (visual, tactile, auditory or other sensory systems) travels a certain neural pathways to the limbic system. There seems to be way subcortical thalamus-amygdala, which enables very fast automatic processing of emotional information importance. The amygdala occurs first, baseline assessment of the stimulus if it is rated as vitally important, emotions can emerge stake neocortex. This processing takes place completely unconscious, without the involvement of the neocortex.
The role of the amygdala in the development of basic emotions that are of great importance for the development of basic emotions (such as fear). The amygdala performs two important functions: 1) store each new physical state of the body associated with perceptual context, and 2) when they later receive information about famous perceptual context, the amygdala activated automatically endocrine and autonomic nervous system via the hypothalamus, and produces physical changes that are the the perceptual context related. After five years of age, the first group of processes in the amygdala is stopped, but the other remains in its process of "debt" to the end of life. In other words, the amygdala is responsible for emotional memory - the memory of the physical condition of the body during emotional arousal and memory on the basis of this, he is able to run very fast, automatic and unconscious emotional processes.
However, there is another, cortical pathways. He goes running from the thalamus to the neocortex and provide a complex assessment information, the regulation of emotional behavior, choice of coping strategies ... Since cortical pathways going back to the limbic system in order to achieve the necessary physical activation. Now, the physical condition of the body is not created automatically but postponed after cognitive appraisal of events in the neocortex.
The finding of the possibility that emotions triggered by subcortical suggests that people can, in some cases, to experience emotions and before you realize why so responsive.
We expect that the majority of emotional expression in infants and small children resulting from automatic, subkortikalnog processing, with minimal participation neocortex. But with the rise of cognitive capacities through learning and maturing, increasingly includes the way to the cortex. At a time when children acquire the language and the capacity for long-term memory, it can process events in one or both of these methods, with specialized subcortical time for those events that require quick response and cortical provides the necessary information for the assessment, trial and more complex cognitive strategies overcome.
From the point of view of these findings, so far all of these theorists, emotions were somewhat right.The differences between their theories stem from whether the focus of this research was more on the primary emotions that are common to man and the higher animals, or on a wider range of emotions, some of which are specifically human, and are based on the higher cognitive abilities.
Researchers in the field of emotional conditioning, traumatic stress and posttraumatic reactions are interested primarily subcortical route of emotionally significant information. On the other hand, researchers and practitioners in the field of psychotherapy, and social behavior, are more interested in cortical time, because he is responsible for the emergence of subtle, varied feelings, many of which are vital to our daily operations as well as the development of psychopathology.
Every emotion is accompanied by subjective experience that is different from other emotions.Emotions with their variety colors our lives. Emotional experiences differ from those that are routine, in which we are emotionally cold or uninterested. Life without emotion, even unpleasant ones, would be extremely tedious. When there is little emotional experiences, we feel bored and looking for excitement. It seems that the need for emotional stimulation characteristic of all people, but individuals differ in their level of emotional arousal that is optimal for the subjective experience of well-being.
Example: People who engage in dangerous sports (extreme sports like diving from great heights, skydiving, rafting-water, etc..) Or professions (professional soldiers, firefighters, stunt ...) often say to themselves that they are "addicted Adrenaline. " They need a higher level of emotional arousal.
For individual emotions have an important and informative - they are a source of insight and a way to know ourselves, if we are open to their own emotional experiences. However, it often happens that people are not aware that some estimate as a significant experience, are not even aware that they react emotionally. This occurs usually by the action of the ego-defensive processes.
Example: A university professor, he began to suffer from ischemia (insufficient oxygen supply to the heart muscle) work at an accelerated rate. In order to monitor his condition began to monitor the pulse in different situations. He was shocked when he realized that his pulse rate jumps to more than 150 beats per minute at the meetings of the department, where he was its involvement in the discussions assessed as "cynical and indifferent." Obviously it is, in fact, was extremely excited emotional events department at the meetings, but it was not aware of. Monitoring the heartbeat of the teachers were very helpful because it drew attention and allowed to properly interpret the events in their lives, and to do something about problem situations that have bothered him.
Expression of the Emotions
Emotions are expressed nonverbally through facial expression, posture, position and movement of the body, tone of voice and pace of speech. Of course, it is possible to express emotions verbally, to the content of speech.
Researchers are studying the most attention to facial expressions of emotion. Even Darwin in his book "Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals" analyzed the evolutionary meaning of facial expressions and adaptive function of emotional expression. Adaptive functions of emotional expression in humans is reflected in communication, influence the behavior of other people, facilitating social interaction. When we are sad, our facial expressions and body posture are saying about the mental state in which we find ourselves and call on other people to support us and care about us. When we are angry, facial expression and body posture are a danger signal to the person who is the object of anger and tells her to pull off.
Today there are still disagreements over the role of heritage and socio-cultural factors in the facial expression of emotion. It is believed that emotions whose facial expressions are culturally universal basic emotions.
Many researchers think that emotion is one of a small number of simple, basic or fundamental emotions (Plutchik 'McDougall ...), and to combine this simple feeling, combined or mixed creating complex feelings.
The first part of this concept is controversial. Basic emotions are those that occur early in individual development, common to higher primates and humans, are culturally universal (people belonging to different cultures express a feeling given the unique way) and have a specific physiological basis.Ekman is investigating facial expression of emotions in different cultures, as well as recognition of emotion in photographs of people from different cultures. It found that there is a consensus on the recognition of emotional expression across cultures, most of the emotion of joy, and the least to fear.
Potoji fifteen basic emotions list compiled by various researchers, and their lists vary from two to eleven and even emotions.
However, the second part of the basic settings and "complex" emotions in dispute and results from the application of different paradigms from other sciences to the understanding of emotions: eg.chemical paradigm or paradigm with colors.
Example: McDougall held that the basic emotions combine to create a complex that has a new, changed features. According to Plutchik 'basic emotions combine like colors in the spectrum, and so provide. derived emotions. Thus, we are afraid + = fault; anger + pleasure = pride, anger, disgust + = contempt and hatred, and so on. Contempt can really look like, according to the method of expression, and the disgust and anger, but it looks like these two emotions, does not mean or prove that it is composed of them. We can imagine a mother who is both angry and disgusted because her child playing in the yard, broke into a septic tank, but that does not mean that she despises that moment or that he hates him.
Complex feelings are not "made up" feeling, but the result of a higher degree of differentiation of the reference frame (cognition, evaluation, expression), which allows the person to evaluate more complex contexts. When the cognitive assessment is simple and emotion "elementarnija", "cleaner", and when the cognitive assessment is a complex and complicated emotions.