Man exposed to constant contact with objects and phenomena in the real world. All these phenomena and objects spontaneously in it cause this or that attitude. Not only these objects and phenomena, but even some of their properties, color, taste, smell, etc.; were not indifferent to us. Sensing that their properties, we have also experienced pleasantness or unpleasantness.
At the time of observation information of a person in a specific way to respond to that information a special experience to be called emotions (feelings). The expression of emotions is of Latin origin (emotie = excitement). The practice of expressing emotion and feeling equally used interchangeably.What will develop in us feelings toward certain objects or phenomena, largely depends on what the significance of those same objects and phenomena have for us, and what role they have or can have them in our lives in a particular situation.
So, emotions are one of the most basic experiences of their own personality. In the broadest sense of the term psychological emotions related to the excited state of the body that is manifested in three completely different ways:
First Emotional event, eg. person feels anger;
Second Emotional behavior, for example. people berating and attacking his tormentor;
3rd Physiological changes in the body, for example. the blood rushed to his face, heart attack, etc. faster.
These three aspects of emotions are very closely related.
Every emotional experience has four main dimensions:
First The intensity of feeling. In terms of intensity of feelings of emotional experiences can range from subtle nuances to the current mood of the strongest passions. Anger can range from weak to strong agitation anger, and joy can vary from mild to the complete satisfaction of ecstasy.
Second The level of tension. Emotional experiences are very different in terms of level of tension.The tension is related to the impulse to activity. The person feels that something inside makes you attack an obstacle that is disturbing, to escape from a dangerous object, playing with enthusiasm.These are examples of "active" emotions. "Passive" or "peaceful" emotions need not involve such an impulse to action; sad people can sit without the desire to run, satisfied person does not feel the need to act. The intensity of feeling and tension levels are often correlated. The high degree of tension and often means more intense feeling. Strong intensity can also be found in the small tension emotions, such as. in deep depression.
3rd Hedonic tone. Emotional experiences are very different ro its pleasantness or unpleasantness.Feelings of sadness, shame, fear, remorse obviously uncomfortable, and the feelings of joy, pride, satisfaction, self, respect, obviously pleasing. Some emotions do not have to be either very pleasant or very unpleasant.
The intensity of feelings will affect the course hedonic tone. Mild anger does not have to be particularly unpleasant, but the state of anger is embarrassing. There is also an interesting paradox that emotions usually felt as pleasant can become so intense as to be uncomfortable, and vice versa.
4th The degree of complexity. Many of our emotional experience is simple and uncomplicated, we feel pure horror of an earthquake, pure delight in the sudden moment of happiness, pure grief at the death of her beloved dog. Emotional experiences are, in contrast to the previous, often very complex, and a different set of feelings. Such "unspeakable" emotions and the complex elements leading to an inability to describe an emotional experience, ie. to say whether he is pleasant or unpleasant.
The question is how does a rich emotional life that is found in humans? Tests in humans show that inheritance plays an important role in emotional behavior. When identical twins are more similar to the way emotional response than neidentičnih between twins or siblings who are not twins. The development also depends on feelings of personal experience of learning. Tests have shown that there is a correspondence between objects that will trigger feelings and situations between parents and children. Where the mother is afraid of the dark or thunder ro rule will be scared and desa.Therefore, the development of emotions, we can conclude, depends on the hereditary basis of the learning process. Conditions for the occurrence of certain basic emotions and the differences in their expression are given heritage. But that will be the situation, and what emotions arise, depending on the study.
Anatomical and physiological aspects of Emotions
Anatomical and physiological basis of emotional behavior actually makes the whole organism. Are of particular significance: the vegetative nervous system with the endocrine system, the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex.
First Autonomic nervous system plays an important role in emotional responses. It regulates the glands with internal secretion. The work of these glands, affects the functioning of certain organs and regulates their activity. From the endocrine glands, the emotional reaction is especially important adrenal glands and the hormones they secrete a hormone adrenaline. This hormone acts, among other things, the increase in blood sugar and thus to create a surplus of energy in the body, increases heart rate, increases blood pressure, constricts blood vessels, and so on. Although the vegetative nervous system plays an important role in the emergence of emotion, he still does not seem quite as alone as its name indicates. He acts connected with other parts of the nervous system. It is connected to the hypothalamus, which is a center for the regulation of the vegetative nervous system and brain with the skin on.
Second The hypothalamus is a group of nerve cells located at the base of the brain. Through the thalamus (which is the formation of nerve, which lies immediately to the hypothalamus) and hypothalamic nerve impulses go from the receptor and internal organs in the crust, and the crust in the internal organs, and through them, the body achieves control of various physiological processes.If, for example, the hypothalamus directly Draz electrically, there will be a reaction of the body, similar to those that occur in the emotions, such as feelings of anger. Cat which imitate the hypothalamus, thus showing any external signs of anger: snorts, ruffled hair, combat posture. That it does not in the same condition as when an external stimulus, for example, a dog who attacks cause such a reaction, proven by the fact that the cat, despite these signs of anger extends to eat. Removal of the hypothalamus lost all expressions of emotions in dogs and cats is not the case after the removal of any part of the brain. These observations clearly indicate that the hypothalamus plays a role in emotional behavior, but it does not justify the conclusion that he is the only important neural mechanism for the control of emotions. Finally, the affective reactions cease abruptly interrupting stimuli and do not leave any trace, which is not usually the case after a real emotional states (mjaukanje, trembling, hiding, etc..). As seen from this, the emotional reactions caused by stimulation of the hypothalamus are primarily mechanical in nature itself does little to contain the true emotional connection.
3rd The cerebral cortex has a very delicate role in the emergence of emotions and their expression, as she performs the intellectual processing of emotional content and inhibition of emotional expression. So, just to activate the cortex to perceive situations and to assess them as important or unimportant, hazardous or non-hazardous.
The activities of the cerebral cortex, moreover, depends on whether the emotional state take or will cease as soon goes situation regarding which emotions emerged. Especially important was the role of the cortex that inhibits and reduces the intensity of the reaction of various organs, and emotions.Tests have shown that in animals which bark is removed or interrupted connections between hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, appear very intense emotional reactions of foreign, incompatible with a situation in which the animal is located.
From all of the above stems the notion that emotional expression interaction events cortex and hypothalamus.
THEORY OF EMOTIONS
Among the attempts to explain the emotional behavior of people in general, we can distinguish two groups of theories. One group consists of the general theory of which is to show the essence of the occurrence of feelings in human life and the role of feelings in coping with and adapting to the reality of man. Drupa make another special theories that lay emphasis on explaining the role of certain neuro-physiological processes that occur during emotional reactions.
First Theory of response to the sudden situation (the theory of Emergency)
Ro emotional response to this theory is the sudden mobilization of a special body to the end that the organism was able to overcome the situation and the unexpected danger of the situation lies. Close this theory is the theory that emotional state is considered state of emergency activation of the organism. Our body is always active (inactive is just totally dead body). There are different degrees of activation of the organism. In unemotional state of the organism as a whole is less active than in the emotional state, and in mild emotions again less than the heat of the moment. Increased activation of qualifying body for greater efforts for quick and decisive action. There is, however, a limit activation deems appropriate. When activating the body exceeds this limit, then this increased activity is more useful because it leads to uncoordinated behavior.
Second James-Lange theory
Born to this theory, emotions arise when we perceived the situation reflective react to changes in the operation of certain internal organs. These organic change as organic feel and it feels about these changes in our internal organs are the essence of emotion. We do not rlačemo because we are sad or not grip of a fist because we are angry but we are sad because rlačemo, and the grip of angry fists.Intentionally causing some movement at certain characteristic emotions lead to the occurrence of emotions.
3rd Cannon-Badova theory
This theory is based on experiments in the hypothalamus and is referred to as a theory of emotions hypothalamic It starts from the assumption that the emotional consequences of experiencing discharge from the hypothalamus, and not a consequence of visceral or skeletal activity. Activation of the hypothalamus also causes nerve impulses to the implementation of the cortex and in several vital organs. However, due to the defects or, rather, specific emotional responses generated by stimulating the hypothalamus, it can be concluded that neither the James-Lange theory or hypothalamic (Cannon-Badova) do not provide for any necessary explanation ties that exist between emotional experience and emotional behavior. In this sense, there are great opportunities for further experimental studies.
4th Cognitive theory of emotion
Modern psychological studies support the hypothesis that emotion is not only aware of the physical changes. Organic changes that are artificially induced and which are characteristic of the emotions of fear or anger, without prejudice to the full experience of such emotions. In the experiment, subjects were not experiencing real emotions of fear or anger. They felt "as if they were mad," "as if they feel fear," not that they are angry and scared. It can be seen that for the full experience of emotions lacked something. Ro opinion of some psychologists, lacked a cognitive, cognitive component.
Physiological changes in emotion
Man's body is very sensitive and physiologically react to small changes in their environment, which often escape the eye or it just does not make note of. Already usual observation suggests that changes the appearance of emotions follow heartbeat, shortness of breath, feeling of weakness, sweating, tremors, stomach discomfort, and so on. The most studied organic changes that occur during fear and anger. Below I will share most physiological changes that occur in the body with a variety of emotions. These are:
First Autonomic nervous system. It consists of three parts. The upper part of the proceeds from the medulla oblongata and its fiber, among other things, slowing heart rate, but it stimulates the glands that secrete gastric juices of the stomach wall and trigger digestive distress. It is the parasympathetic part of vegetative nervous system. The middle part consists of the sympathetic nerve fibers that originate from the medulla oblongata that. Central cord. It has the opposite effect to that part of the parasympathetic nerve fibers that originate from the medulla oblongata. Middle part of the heart rate, increases blood pressure, stomach and stops the activity also appears in the other changes that are considered important for emotion. The lower part, which leaves from the lower part of the sacral spinal cord stimulates sexual and excretory organs. It is also the parasympathetic part of the vegetative nervous system. With a variety of emotions can be stimulated and various parts of the system and the body are different depending on which one is the dominant part in its work. The meaning of various body changes in emotional state, according to experts, is to equip the body for increased effort in the situation that caused the emotion. Emotions, especially intense emotions primarily cause of such situations that pose a potential threat to humans.
The study of changes in the stomach showed that in the midst of fear reduces acid secretion, and digestion slows down or stops. As a result of welding leads to the appearance of metabolism and blood sugar. The appearance of sugar in the blood is directly or indirectly related to the secretion of adrenaline in the blood. These changes are tasked to increase the amount of energy for an activity that is required to remove the danger.
The study of changes in the stomach showed that in the midst of fear reduces acid secretion, and digestion slows down or stops. As a result of welding leads to the appearance of metabolism and blood sugar. The appearance of sugar in the blood is directly or indirectly related to the secretion of adrenaline in the blood. These changes are tasked to increase the amount of energy for an activity that is required to remove the danger.
Second Changes in the blood stream. Bloodstream to regulate the contraction and relaxation of the hollow muscle - the heart. The consequence is the heart blood circulation birth village body to the smallest arteries and, in return, from the tiniest veins to the heart. When the excitation of these vessels constrict and blood is sent to the heart, and the heart to the body that is activated. These fibers regulate the sympathetic part of the vegetative nervous system. Slowed heart rate is a result of the parasympathetic part of the vegetative nervous system.
3rd Muscular tension. The muscles of the neck, arms, body and legs are under the constant influence of the effects of nerve impulses in the waking state. They are under the control of antagonistic muscle one that shortens them and another that stretches them so they are constantly in a tense situation. Changing the strength emotions expressed in muscle tension.
4th Breathing. Respiration is the process of inhaling oxygen required in every muscle activity and breathing out carbon dioxide, which is the result of muscle activity. Breathing regulates the vagus nerve ("nerve wanderer"). Breathing is beyond our control, then we can purposely to get rid of excess carbon dioxide. In most emotion rrodubljuje breathing and accelerates to the brain and muscles better oxygen supply, thus they become more prepared for a strong and sustained effort.Hence examples of man in anger and fear can commit acts that would not in a normal state (to run extremely fast and long to jump high hurdles, etc.).
5th Galvanic skin reflex. The electrical conductivity of the skin is measured by galvanometer and the result is obtained, ie. electric conductivity of the skin is called the galvanic skin reflex. This reflex occurs when the physical and intellectual work, and it shows a level of excitement rough. If the emotions are more intense, the more hands galvanometer deflection greater.
6th Endocrine glands. Emotional state and activates the hormonal glands. Bark adrenal gland secretes a number of hormones - corticosteroids that increase resistance to physical injury and contribute to the overall feeling of freshness and vigor. Thyroid gland secretes the hormone thyroxine, which increases overall metabolism and accelerates organic function which enhances the body's overall readiness for activity.
7th Brainwaves. Activating the body's particular theory relies on brain waves are detected even L929. and registered by the electroencephalograph (EEG). If electrodes are placed on the head and tied to an electroencephalograph, this shows the alpha-rhythm. Those are pretty strong waves in the brain, about l0 per second, which are related to the processes in it. But if whatever charm to attract attention, alpha rhythm is replaced with short fast waves. It is thought that it comes from the fact that the brain cells lose their normal relationship to each other during such activities, and small waves can not be summed up in the great waves of the alpha-rhythm.
8th Other physical changes. The most common are: dilation, pale face, the temperature drop face, blinking, changes in the amount of secretion of saliva (xerostomia), changes in the chemical composition of blood and urine, etc..
All previously described changes were adaptive and is intended to enable the body to increased effort in the situation that caused the emotion. In this situation, rapid breathing, and increased breathing air especially an increased bringing oxygen into the body and allows rapid conversion of nutrients into energy. Increased circulation and increased blood flow to the brain and extremities, and decreased blood flow to the abdominal organs, allowing the brain work harder and more effectively use his limbs. And other body changes contribute to greater activation of the organism, its better to use that suprodstavi unexpected danger. But the sudden and very dangerous situations can come to a complete paralysis and inactivity that. to mental confusion - emotional distress. In such situations the brain as it stood, arms and legs can not move, urges strong body malaise, and sometimes a man of consciousness.
Expression of the Emotions
Emotional expression depends on two factors: the inheritance and social learning. The importance of heritage in emotional expression suggested another Darwin. Emotional expression, birth to him, partly an indirect consequence of the physiological changes that occur in the emotional state. This leads to the appearance of pale, blushing, trembling, and so on. Part is the emotional expression of the rest of the movement sometimes useful in situations relevant to the individual. For example, a constant and equal to the order of the movements in the emotion of surprise is: the closure of the eyelids, movements of the head, neck movement forward, launching his shoulders and finally the whole body. All this, above, is based on the heritage of individual readiness to engage in combat with the possible danger.
However, expression of emotions depends on learning. It shows a variety of anthropological research to the same emotions in different environments and conditions expressed in different ways.Spitting on someone is with us, the ultimate expression of contempt and some African tribes sign of affection and good will. Eyes wide open to us as an expression of amazement and anger in the Chinese Zodiac. Whistling at an event so far has mostly been a sign of discontent, increasingly today it signifies approval.
Emotions are manifested in a variety of movements, especially in the facial expression, the body movements and voice changes.
The facial expression of emotion. As expressions of emotions commonly occurring facial movements. The most striking expressions of emotion are the movements of the muscles around the eyes and the muscles around the mouth. On the basis of these movements are formed and characteristic differences in facial expression during positive and negative feelings. In satisfaction were built muscles around the eyes and mouth, and dissatisfaction with the relaxed
Body movements are a common feature of the various emotions, especially the movements of the limbs. In fear, or run away or stand as buried. When anger is frequent and intense uncoordinated movements, movements in anger attacks (hand movements and clenching fist), and in sorrow the body is relaxed and limp, the joy we have a distinctive laugh and live arm and body movements.Prestravljenost for all people jointly sudden movements of the head, blinking eyes, a characteristic facial expression, raising the ejection shoulder forward, forward troop movements, feeding the stomach.
Changes voice. Emotions are expressed and speech. A man's voice is very distinctive character emotions. High and loud sounds occur in excitement, while slowing and lowered voice follows disappointment, sadness, and some excitement. With the voice of excitement usually flashes. Rlač and sobbing, for example, typical of sorrow, for the joy of laughter, the sudden scream of fear and surprise. When anger is the voice of maturity usually elevated, longer words are often shortened and Rauza between units of speech are reduced. In mourning the slow pace of speech, and the Rauza between individual words extended. Emotional expression of voice plays an important role in the singer. Periodic variations in the amount and volume of individual singers singing characterized, and some have the impression that the singer sing with more feeling than others. Ro's voice betrays some research rather than emotion expression.
In everyday communication with people, emotional expression plays a very important role. On the basis of it we assess how others react to our actions, assess their intentions and adjusting our behavior. In this evaluation, the man does not use just one type of data, but different types of data.Accurate assessment of emotions is very important and helps knowledge of the situation occurs in which emotional expression. The difficulty in assessing the emotions of others as there are conventional expressions of emotions that often hinder accurate assessment of emotion, because individuals often deliberately express emotions when they do not have or are trying to express conflicting emotions manifested by those who really have.
CLASSIFICATION OF EMOTIONS
Taking the form of an endless variety of situations and that man can be found, it might be expected that the emotional experiences of each defy classification. However, many emotions can be classified according to various criteria. According to their importance and the frequency of occurrence, different primary emotions such as fear, anger, joy and sorrow of others. Feelings occur with some intellectual experience, and therefore we can distinguish feelings and experiences with the intellectual occurring. As a special group of feeling different feelings associated with certain types of sensory impressions, the feel, and are called sensory feelings. Classification can be made with regard to the content of the play and thought that are associated with different feelings. That may be different feelings related to their personality and feelings related to other ljide and aesthetic feelings.Maturity period is different moods as emotional states that last longer, the short-term emotional states. More intense emotions often singled out as the affect.
For the purposes of this paper classification of emotional states was done on the following six main groups, starting with the most basic and mostly directed towards the goal of emotion.
First Primary emotions (joy, fear, anger, sadness);
Second Emotions related to sensory stimulation (pain, disgust, horror, joy);
3rd Emotions related to self-assessment (shame, pride, guilt);
4th Emotions relating to other people (love, hate, compassion);
5th Emotions associated with estimating (humor, beauty, amazement);
6th Mood (lack of enthusiasm, anxiety, excitement).
First Primary emotions
Joy, anger, fear and sadness are frequently described as basic or primary emotions. They also called for a number of reasons. Occur early in the development of the individual; situations that cause them are basically simple, intimately associated with the activity directed to, and are therefore often associated with a high degree of tension.
a) Joy. Bit situational condition of joy that a man aspires towards a certain goal and to accomplish this. Joy depends on the intensity level of tension that builds up in man during motivated activities.When the goal is not particularly important emotion that occurs may be just slightly satisfaction, if the goal is extremely important, the result can be a delight (ecstatic joy).
Joy is the emotional equivalent of the reduction in tension that occurs due to reaching the goal.Speed with which the goal is achieved and reduces tension, affects the intensity of joy. When a man easily win a game, he feels moderately cheering while winning the last moment, when all seemed lost, can cause emotional ecstasy.
b) anger. The basic requirement is that the wrath of the obstacles to achieving a goal, especially when it is the prevention of permanent and gradual build-up of tension. In the beginning, there need not be anything but weak feeling of anger and anxiety, with an extension to the state of frustration, man can become really angry, even to reach a state of frenzy or Exasperation.
Undermined the goal will not in all cases lead to anger. Whether there will be anger or not depends on whether you can identify any obstacle that stands in your way to the finish line. If a man simply can not see what prevents it from achieving the goal, the anger is born not appear likely, but if he perceive the obstacle that give you any trouble, especially if he makes it undermined "unjustified", "willfully" or "maliciously" , the anger is likely to occur and to express the aggressive action directed against an object that prevents the achievement of the target.
a) Fear. Joy and anger are emotions in a way that contained striving toward a goal. Fear, on the other hand, emotions "avoidance" and is characterized by running away from danger. Today, fear is the most common emotion experienced. Many researchers even put it in the core of human existence ("Fear is the one that makes the world go round").
An important feature of the situation in which the perception of fear arises dangerous object or threats. A key element in this situation is the lack of power or the ability to fight the danger man. If a man does not know how to protect against it, especially if you realize that the retreat was cut, develops fear. The deepest fear (terror) can cause a feeling of helplessness in the power of the almighty force (earthquake or other natural disaster).
Over time, we have to get used to the dangerous objects, living in their midst, and without fear of reporting. It is particularly important to unexpected changes in our familiar surroundings can cause fear.
When we encounter fear strongest emotional contagion, stronger than any emotion. Perception, auditory or visual, that someone else is able to strong fear among observers will often cause panic, even if nothing else in the situation there, which could cause the emotion.
A very important component in many situations, the prediction of fear of what will happen (future-oriented time perspective). So we predict what will happen, and with the thoughts of these events, we create a situation of severe anticipatory anxiety (anticipation of prisoners to be brought to execution, waiting for the dentist, etc..). The anticipation of upcoming hazards commonly experienced as anxiety (anxiety).
Startle reactions. Critical stimuli for fear of a sudden loss of body surfaces and sudden loud sound (threatening another person with those "BU"). It is obvious that in the moments when we suddenly shy, often feel immediate fear. However, startle reactions can not be equated with fear. In many cases, startle reactions no fear, but a completely different reactions, such as, for example, a laugh.The sudden charm can lead to feelings of fear answering only when the rest of the situation and directing done in this direction (if loudly and suddenly shouted "BU" on the ear at night a person reads a thrilling crime novel or an ear person sitting in a football stadium watching the game - in the first case to come to the fear and the other is likely to come before the surprises, laughter, nervousness, or everything will go without any real reaction).
There are people who like to experience some kind of fear. Let us take an example of fear and excitement that you voluntarily suffers skier jumps on the diving board or when the athlete is competing to beat your own or someone else's record. But here the danger immediately follows joy when successful, and that's why people do not complain about the fear.
d) Grief. Joy, anger and fear associated with a tendency toward a goal or avoiding hazards.Unfortunately (grief) is associated with the loss of something which we have striven or something we appreciate. The strength of this feeling depends on the value of property, usually the deepest sorrow caused by the loss of a loved one, then a deep feeling of sadness may arise due to a variety of other losses. There are many shades of grief from the simple feelings of disappointment and regret, to the intense and sustained sadness.
Joy, anger and fear are typical "active" emotions that are accompanied with a high degree of tension.For raliku of them, grief is usually a typical "quiet" emotion that is characterized in less tension and activity. However, there are obvious cases in which grief is manifested by crying and other active expressions. In the case of the death of loved ones is often a "delayed reaction". First of all, people experience some kind of shock manifesting "numbness", the man himself and those around him may be surprised by the lack of real emotion. This phase is usually followed by a period in which the loss is clearly understood then one can experience a real cramp pain accompanied with a high degree of tension and active expression.
With a certain probability, it can be argued that unfortunately occurs because in their minds imagine many intended and special things that we lose a loved one forever deprive. When a man from time to time come into contact with various objects that remind you of a loved one, shows signs increased awareness of the importance of the loss. And the "sting" of every aspect novoopaženog suffered loss, a new wave of grief, even when the emotions subside for a long time. As with all other emotions, with sadness, the village is a story not only about the loss of something simple that we appreciate. There are cases where the loss of something valuable is not accompanied by sadness. Key to this is that the loss is perceived in the wider context of what is perceived.
Although sadness is classified as primary emotions, along with the joy, anger and fear, to some extent, it seems less primitive emotions. It seems that there is a greater complexity of the basic situation of sadness occurs, to a greater extent, requires understanding the loss and consequences that it leads to a greater dependence on time in the future orientation of the individual. No sorrow without a specific object that is valued and that izgubijen. With joy, anger and fear objects also play a role, but it is necessary to a lesser degree.
Second EMOTIONS REGARDING THE Sensual STIMULATION
This group includes those emotional experiences of pleasure and embarrassment caused when some facilities prefer our senses. Irritation may be mild or intense.
a) Vol. Physical pain is the most important case of emotional arousal that occurs in intense physical stimulation. At low intensities, the sensation of pain can be perceived as secondary to man and they do not have any experience to provoke an emotion or reaction avoidance. At higher intensities, there is an unpleasant emotional state, and in the end leads to intense pain severe emotional agitation (restlessness accompanied by physical reactions). Painful emotions is often reinforced by the fear.The inner pain, the source of which is not known, it may be very uznemirijući, especially if we tend to think that it can have dire consequences, as is the case with cancer.
The emotion of pain has parallel properties with emotions of fear. These characteristics are reflected in the fact that both emotions intensify prevention options to avoid unpleasant situations and alleviate the knowledge that we are able to govern situations that provoke emotion.
b) Repulsion. There are different types of objects that you can see, smell, taste or touch that causes disgust. severely uncomfortable feeling which has a strong tendency to avoid and express feelings that result from physical changes, such as nausea and vomiting. Feelings of disgust is much stronger when the object is not only seen but also touched the skin.
Under disgust mean only the primary emotion that contain substantial bodily sensations that arise due to torture and similar changes.
a) dissatisfaction. When pain and disgust bit of emotional experience consists of a clear sense of bodily changes. A huge number of stimuli can cause a variety of unpleasant emotional experience, which places it in the dissent. These are the feelings of antipathy, aversion, suffering, and those feelings are directed mainly to negative objects.
Ro intensity of these feelings may range from minor irritation and frustration to the ultimate horror that occurs when witnessing strong affective experiences (terrible accident, body mutilation, demolition). The intensity is determined by the degree of horror familiarity and identification with other people or objects. The horror was still more increased with the feeling of not being able to influence the events.
d) Satisfaction. A large number of objects and events in humans can cause pleasant feelings. These events are called emotional pleasures of music hall and she, born in intensity, from small pleasure, comfort, liking, to the highest ecstasy.
Emotions pleasures not to be confused with joy that we described earlier. They are not feeling the sudden easing tensions, rather they are a positive pleasure. They also often include feelings of excitation, but this irritation integral part of the pleasure, not a precondition of its occurrence.Sources are pleasures, as well as dissatisfaction, inexhaustible.
3rd EMOTIONS REGARDING THE self-assessment
The feeling of success and failure, shame, pride, guilt, or remorse, where emotions are the essential factors as perceptions of their behavior in relation to different standards of conduct. These kinds of emotions occur gradually during development in humans, for example, a young child does not feel ashamed and need plenty of time to pass before a child is able to feel remorse.
a) The feeling of success and failure. Achieving the goal and accompanying decrease in tension leads to feelings of joy. But in addition to this there is a complicated situation in which their businesses compare with their own intentions. Feelings of success and satisfaction do not always have to follow the execution of a task. These feelings occur only if the man ratnja concentrated on what he has achieved. The success and failure must be defined on the basis of their own perception. One can feel that he achieved success when others around him did not believe that, just as a man can feel that he fell short, and when the second estimate is managed. Often, one can understand that the goal is set too low, so I feel miserable and then when you realize it.
Although the standards that directly determine what a man shall live as a success, and what as a failure, primarily internal, personal thing, social factors play a huge role in shaping these internal standards. Man sets and adjusts its standards oblivious to some extent to the standards of other people. He often compete with each other and the general means of assessment activities, man are strongly enforced.
b) The pride and shame. When success or failure in achieving a goal, he saw a man as a sign of achievement or lack, there is an increasing and important emotions of pride and shame. The feeling of pride occurs when a person perceives that her behavior is consistent with what is known about rojam ideal "self." Conversely, the feeling of shame occurs when a person perceives that his conduct does not perform as ideal self-image demands. There are powerful forces in society to be directed at individuals to force their own behavior and conduct continuously evaluate rrema dictates ideal "self." Thus, for example, the emotions of pride and shame emerge as an integral part of social education occur when parents deliberately trying to build samoocenjivačke occur at positions ("Are not you ashamed to myself?", "Do you think you behaved the way I know that correct? "," Can not you behave the way you are behaving Đorde? "). In this way spoljašlji standards are beginning to embrace as their own standards and they are internalized, ie. they constitute a permanent part of one's "self."
There are different degrees and different types and internalization. For some people and in some societies, the standards of behavior are not fully internalized; outward signs of approval and disapproval groups are still a major factor. The man feels shame when a group does not approve of showing that his behavior and feels pride when a group expresses its approval. The phrase "lose face" indicates a close link with the external mark of shame.
With other people and other cultures, the ideal "I" is fully internalized. A man carries his code as part of himself, and I respect him, regardless of the presence or absence of immediate external social score. To be ashamed, it is not necessary to examine the other as he examines himself, it is not necessary to someone else because he condemns himself as if looking through the eyes of others.
a) The guilt and remorse. Feelings of guilt and shame are not identical and they are often closely linked. Guilt is feeling bad procedure, misdemeanors, and what is still seen as embarrassing and painful. The main condition for this emotions appeared to consist in the observation that the activity of their own in this situation, does not coincide with the "right" and "moral" or "ethical" situation that requires action.
Feelings of guilt can be easily and transient. Easily form a "guilty conscience." The other extreme is pure torture in the "agony of conscience." Milder degrees of guilt can sometimes be to some extent even enjoyable and entertaining born in tone.
There are major differences in how one understands the causes of their feelings of guilt. He could see quite certain what he is required to clearly and understand how he violated the requirements. Other situations may be far more complex so that one does not see clearly what exactly is required of him, and how his work related to these requirements. Anxiety is an important component of such a vaguely defined characteristics and seemingly irrational guilt.
There are significant differences in the degree of objectification of guilt. On the one hand (one extreme), fault applies only to an individual act. This document is not an essential feature of the human "I" but peripheral. On the other hand (the other extreme), the fault is seen as a fault of our "I", my evil nature, wicked act not only belong to me but to me it was manufactured.
Remorse is an emotion that occurs when a look back at some of our previous activities in distressed situations and we have a bad conscience because of the work that we perform. This is never pleasant emotions such as was the case with some forms of guilt. Regret is a painful experience, and a lot sterner than just a feeling of guilt. Often only in retrospect that we realize the nature of our actions and their consequences are in violation of what is right. This is caused by the fact that later is more likely to look at the real consequences of their own actions. The intensity of feelings of remorse can be after many years of extremely strong. One reason for the intense anxiety that accompanies repentance lies in the consciousness of the impotence of the previously committed crimes fix ("Now it's all too late").
4th Emotions that relate to other people
A good part of our emotional life comes from our relationship, "I" to other people. a) Love. By the word love mean to lasting emotional and immediate experience strong emotions in the presence of another person.
Feelings of love can take various forms depending on the nature of the relationship between the object and our "I". Gentle and protective feelings that are central to the maternal love, stemming from the perception of the child as inferior beings who need romoć. The excitement and enthusiasm that is found in romantic love, arises from the desire and expectation proximity beloved partner and fantasies of common happiness. Strong element of sexual excitation which is sometimes seen in some of the emotions of love, occurs when the man saw that the other person's sexual characteristics appropriate to his sexual desires. The emotions of love can occur in these forms as well as many other experiences and intensity can range from mild to severe, and the degree of tension can vary from very mild to favor the strongest turbulent passions. The core of the feeling of love is a feeling that others are attracted, the desire to be attracted. Our I greatly identify with another person, and in addition there is a sense of devotion to another person. From the standpoint of the person who loves you, love is always and necessarily "selfless" because otherwise it would not be love. In addition, the intensity of arousal depends on other factors, such as accessibility or inaccessibility of the beloved object (inaccessible object of love is love with more passion).
Romantic love. When we meet her in large part to the inability to contact element and it occurs most frequently in those who are separated. When a goal is achieved, sooner or later, the "honeymoon" ends and there is less likelihood that they will continue to be romantic love. There is a change in the psychological situation that is no longer a suitable framework for romantic love.
Love for oneself. Love, like many other emotions can be directed at his own "I". Love of self is called narcissism. I believed that each of us has those feelings to some extent, but there are people whose love of oneself is most intense love that they can experience.
b) Jealousy. The main characteristic of the situation in which the emotions of jealousy arises consists in recognizing that favor a loved one turns to the other rather than against us. The existence of rivals (real or imagined) is required factor. Have a look loved even just keep passing on to someone else, the feeling of jealousy now occurs.
The intensity of jealousy often seems disproportionate situation. Individual predisposition to jealousy depends on several factors. One is, of course, the intensity of love, especially when the needs and desires constantly unsatisfied because love is not returned. Another factor is the feeling of self-respect back when he saw a man that loved one more than the price of its rival himself. What is a man less sure of itself, this factor will play an increasing role.
Another important form of jealousy are in close emotional relationships that exist between family members. The child may feel intense jealousy of the new baby, feeling the love and attention of parents moved with him to the new kid.
s) Envy. An important feature of these negative emotions is a perception of the situation in which another person has something for yourself as soon as we desire. One factor which is dependent on the envy of the intensity of the desire for the object, if the desire is weak, it is less likely that we will feel envy towards a person. Another factor that will occur prior to envy if desired thing we perceive as a line, so that the possession of these things you want from the other person is impossible for us to have. It may be the case when someone has something for us, and when we consider that the property value has not gotten personal or in a special situation, but "unfair". This points to the third factor - a person who envy must take a central place in our lives. We do not feel the same degree of envy for the good fortune to someone who is very distant to us, but good luck if you serve our brother, we may feel intense jealousy for his brother prominent figure and we know that his happiness potentially achievable for us.
d) Hatred. Hatred includes two features: a permanent arrangement and intensely emotional condition that periodically causes. The condition for triggering feelings of hatred is the presence of the hated person or object. Feelings of hatred is increased in situations where there are other negative emotions (threat, jealousy, envy, etc..).
The core emotions of hatred in order to destroy the object of hate. Hatred is not simply a feeling of aversion, disgust or aversion to an object, as it would only bring those feelings to avoid reactions.Hatred is an emotion which in itself contains access to the facility. We seek the object of hatred, we can not get rid of obsessive thoughts about him and we are not satisfied until you destroy it. Hated person necessarily has to play a central role in our lives. As we can not pretend only to a person who is psychologically close to us, just as we can only hate a person psychologically close.
Self-hatred. As a self-love, there is also self-hatred. One can discover that many aspects of his own personality abomination. Because he can not run away from yourself, and it would be normal to avoid such an inconvenience, there is a permanent feeling of self-hatred. As with any other speech, at the core of self-hatred is the desire for destruction and injury, a man demeans himself, punish yourself, mentally or physically, and, finally, it can even make and suicide.
e) Other emotions to people. Typical of these emotions is to include the assessment of others. They are closely associated with the positions and can be positive or negative.
The feeling of liking for another person can be very different, ranging from moderate fellowship, to the rapture of passionate love. This feeling will be that much stronger if our "I do" to a greater extent identify with another person.
The most intense liking feel when we observe another person very much like us ro personality traits and preferences. It seems that in such cases, we feel that the greatest degree of identification with another person, especially as manifested in a feeling of sympathy for such a person.
If you see that a person has the qualities that we consider inferior, and yet we are the person finishing, the quality of our feelings for others it will be different. Instead of feeling sympathy for her suffering, here arises a feeling of pity.
Identification is otherwise significant in determining our feelings toward others. Love makes us blind to the shortcomings of a loved one, and once you perceive shortcomings, they can lead to very sharp criticism. Disadvantages of a loved one takes on greater significance and cause a stronger feeling than exceeded which would cause the same behavior of another person that you can not identify.
Liking and identification often bring us into closer contact with other people. The result is a greater possibility of observation of new features and aspects of personality in a number of situations. The more we learn about a person, the more we discover virtues, it is the feeling of liking more intense ("To know is to love"). However, this effect can be negative - the more things we discover, we are all one person less rework ("Knowledge breeds contempt").
Feelings of dislike the birth intensity range from mildly aversion to the deepest hatred. Negative perception of the quality of a person is the main cause of dislike. As with positive feelings, the intensity of dislike depends on the level of engagement of our "I".
Quality of negative emotions depends partly on the perceived superiority or inferiority of others in relation to us. According to the person that we are not finishing and we feel inferior or weak, we can not feel contempt, dismissal of, scorn. According to the person that we are not finishing, and we feel superior or powerful, can feel malice. When a person we do not perceive any dressing not as superior or inferior, in particular, can feel the lack of sympathy or antipathy. The fact that we are not one person often means dressing to avoid that person. The result is the loss of any opportunity to see a different person.
5th Emotions associated with EVALUATION
This is a group whose main emotion feature The evaluation orientation towards things and events in the world and its own roložaju in the world.
a) Humor and laughter is a complex emotion that relates to fun and frolic and their common core is an emotion that is very pleasant ro basic tone, but there are a number of different feelings that are classified and each has its own unique quality sensitive. Such is the case with humor, comedy, satire, joke, burlesque, etc.. For this reason, unsuccessful attempts to discover a common factor of situational humor.
There is some confusion between the particular way of expressing feelings of humor, laughter, and in fact the nature of inner experience that is expressed. There is no one response of laughter, but many differing maturity and quality of detail. One can roar with laughter, or just to smile and he could scream, the muffled laughs, the giggles, giggling, laughing uproariously, to rejoice, to zaceni laughing.The special quality of each of these types of laughter reflects differences in the overall situation that provokes laughter. Laughter, like any other motor reactions of the organism, can be caused by a very large number of different and often unrelated stimuli. Laughter may have little or nothing to do with humor. He does not need to express joy, but rather excessive tension in the uncomfortable situation ("hysterical laughter", "nervous laughter"). It has been noticed that a man can not cause laughter golicajući himself. Laughter can also express the sudden release of tension that arises from achieving a goal, and then the laughter expresses a feeling of joy.
There is no single theory provides an adequate explanation for all the different types of humor. Two of the many theories have attracted much attention.
The first theory suggests that humor allows the man to a socially-acceptable way to express their superiority, aggression, sexuality, and to defend against the dangers that lurk in reality. The main reason for the humor is born to this theory, the perception of the failure of people, institutions or behaviors that do not love or hate. Laughter expresses triumph, superiority, ridicule or contempt.
- Expression of superiority. In many cases, humor expresses a person's attitude of superiority toward others. Ro this, humor is a sudden victory that arises from our virtues in comparison with the weaknesses of others. A large number of jokes easily visible element of defiance and mockery different groups (jokes about drunks, Muji and Hasi, etc..)
- The expression of aggression. Humor is a very convenient way to express aggression in a safe, socially acceptable and a somewhat indirect manner. Sometimes the humor is based on aggression that is felt by people who have a superior status, or people who show outward signs of personal importance. For example, a pompous person who slips on a banana peel can cause a storm of laughter, while crippled in that situation, it certainly will not;
- Seksualnsti expression. Obvious element of sexuality and rudeness that contain many jokes indicates that humor provides a convenient way to express such thoughts socially prohibited. Sexual jokes often have the character of "seduction" audience, ie. as if this was invited to "participate" in sexual offenses;
- Defense of reality. The humor is always an important aspect of the "game" and unreality. Humor man can serve as a way to protect against torture and threats in real lucky. There is a "black humor" that a man who is stuck joke to defend itself from the harsh reality.
Another group theory holds that the essence of impropriety recognition comical situations.Inadequacy means that parts of the situation in a certain way does not fit. Understanding fit partly depends on our past experience. What is new for us often seem inappropriate. Does not create a comic novelty because there is nothing funny in the observation of a completely new thing. What we need is a vision of old things in new and unexpected relationships. Moreover, there must be something we first administered in one direction, and then suddenly the water in the opposite (the element of surprise or an unexpected twist is a big deal). The essence of telling jokes is that it is very important if the initial expectation of a stronger and more if there is a discrepancy. When there is always telling jokes and gradually building up a school of thought, the tension that is growing as the events one after another - and in the final moment of the story suddenly changes direction, the man was surprised and tensions bream;
b) Aesthetic feeling. It is a complex emotional experiences that provoke aesthetic objects and situations. Aesthetic feeling is pleasant and its intensity can range from quiet enjoyment to the ecstasy of joy. Aesthetic feelings do not arise only in connection with official works of art, but it can occur at any place and at any time;
s) of wonder and admiration. Situations that contain objects, forces, events that we perceive as the all-powerful, strange, unexplained cause feelings of wonder and awe. What these objects and events seem worthy of wonder and awe is exactly what we experience as big, powerful and mysterious, and out beyond our comprehension. All of which contributes to potent man looks at the situation leads to a reduction of awe and wonder. If a person feels helpless against the powerful objects and events may occur and the emotions of fear and anxiety. Awareness is a powerful facility, though well intentioned, is remote, inaccessible, in a sense sublime, adds another component solemn feelings of respect and submission, ie. a sense of awe.
If we talk about the awe, admiration and awe, we can not help but mention the religious emotions. In all times and societies, people are experiencing strong emotions about their conceptions of the divine and supernatural forces, whether in the form of a god or many gods, the universal spirit, a supreme being, and so on.
d) Loneliness. In many situations, one can feel that he is separated, isolated, lost in the surrounding area and, thus, generate a strong sense of loneliness. The mere presence of other people is not enough to overcome the feeling of loneliness. Sometimes the strongest feelings of loneliness caused when an individual is in the midst of the crowd of other people, "lonely crowd." Feelings of loneliness can be avoided only if there is a developer living in the group and identification with other people.
Moods are pervasive and transient emotional states that provide affective coloring of our current perception of the whole. Humor tends to overwhelm everything and one often feels that it belongs not only to his own personality, but also the external environment, which is perceived as if it itself has the same tone of sentiment. Melancholy person melancholy while the world looks like a happy person all around it, a lot of fun. The main feature is the sentiment that there is a clear awareness of being based on the characteristics of the specific situation. For example, we have a melancholy mood, but we can not figure out how to humor grows out of the immediate situation.
In all moods emphasize two main characteristics: 1 The degree of tension; second Pleasantness or unpleasantness. Types of mood seem to occur in opposite pairs (opposite the cheerful mood depressed, happy mood tmugnom opposite, calm versus tense mood). If, for example, line up in a nice mood right string tension, which ro bream, the dimension of the corresponding pairs inconvenience allocated ro exactly the reverse order, which increases tension.