Question or statement is: "Why are you nervous?", "Do not be nervous," "Oh, I'm nervous," and suggestions that usually follows: "Please, calm down ... sit down and relax, so Let's talk" .. . or "Stop being nervous because I'm upset" ... often present in our lives - or we refer them to someone, or to us by. This means that we recognize something in the behavior of the names "anxiety" and it usually bothers us, as it is addictive and causes we need to defend ourselves from it, to reassure each other, or cause us anger. However, the normal incidence of the behavior, not the experience to any human being, from a child to an old man. Since when is a man, and since then the "nervous" behavior.
When it recognizes it as "nervous" and repeated behavior assumes a specific shape, in medicine it is called "neurosis," a neurosis as a specific clinical categories with psychiatrists and psychotherapists, using the most common biochemical (drugs) and psychological (psychotherapy) to access " treatment. " The concept of neurosis it is hard to define because it is so varied in its appearance, ambiguous and vague, to the modern classification of mental disorders leaves and certain groups of symptoms "that circle" provides specific name. Because of the understanding, the term "neurosis" means the mental disorders that have some common characteristics:
- These are the functional mental disorders where there is no organic disease of the brain,
- A man is always aware of her "self" and has the ability to test the "reality"
- It is possible to identify and determine the start of a "disease", according to the psychiatric literature.
"I'm sure VEC boring"
Some terms in quotes because its truth is questionable. If you declare a "disease" in the traditional medical sense, we are entering into the system thinking that the "disease" requires a certain "cure" or therapeutic procedures. Furthermore, the "disease" refers to something that we were "attacked" on an error in the operation, make us a world of pathology and diagnosis, and the patients themselves often insist that their psychiatrist says diagnosis, in the psychological sense can be a trap for the therapeutic process and the "cure". The truth is that people who have "problems neurotic character" because of disturbing symptoms difficult work, preoccupied with themselves and are often "heavy" for your environment, and your doctor, especially general practitioners, who would want to be efficient in the art of healing and as every man should feedback on their performance, and "neurotic" besieged it appeals, questions, new and persistent and permanent disabilities "undermine" its efforts to be successful. In addition to being terrified by their "illness" and numerous symptoms and seek help, they are dropped constantly "hungry" other people's attention, patience, support, and often 'get on my nerves "and many" dark eyes "when they appear with their lamentations and cries for help.For such a "style" not guilty and they know they conclude that "safe but boring", but annoying and persistent as well as their interference with which to carry themselves hard, especially when you take on dramatic forms of physical and life when they feel threatened. Environment are difficult to accept, often speak of feeling that no one has sympathy for their problems, that they grasped the seriousness and physicians, but the doctor and the doctor just has to know "how" to encounter patients who come for help. Man has always wanted to understand the causes and find a different appearance in his life and has always been the most important myself. He went into the secrets of your body functioning, developing methodologies and providing the necessary tools and technology continues to make progress in this respect, and the focus of interest is his own mental activity, and that thanks to all the above, which in many people burdened phenomena that hinder functioning.Using our knowledge, experience, reasoning ability, man has built and designed a variety of assumptions, "testing the them" in practice, the various theories that helps in understanding the origins and formation of functional disturbances and, on this basis, the assumptions built for their correction, exploring the is in the process of therapy actually iatrogenic. Various theories, different schools, different therapeutic directions indicate that each human being is unique in its complexity and that, regardless of what manifests, and describes the symptoms (signs of "illness"), etc., so that the doctor can classify certain call name, diagnosis, shows that there is no single therapeutic approach in the formula, recipe and symptoms for each one of us have a specific purpose and meaning.
CALL TO ACTION
Understanding that is a symptom or set of symptoms is not a sign of disease, but as a message that our mind (a term that means the totality of mental activities that make up our mental life) says something that happens to disagree, or call to action to make some changes in relation on what is happening in the world around us, or seeking change our attitude toward something, or want to protect from something, then we can talk about the disease or diagnosis, but we do description "problems" or "message". This would mean that the symptoms are a special kind of language we use, that frightens us because it does not understand, which is painful in its metaphorical and that we primarily concern because it is something new for us and suggested that we think about the "disease".It is a logical consequence to seek medical attention, even though it is often our "deal" with symptoms that are not very dramatic for several years. As this "language" is very colorful, can manifest itself in ways that conventional medicine is ranked among the diagnostic categories by certain criteria, and appoint them as:
- Phobic anxiety disorders (phobic neuroses) is the fear of clearly defined situations and objects that are not objectively threatening, and uslovljuju avoidance behavior, so that some people are afraid of open spaces, crowds, going to the store, to travel and must always move with accompaniment;
- Social phobia can manifest fear of people and social situations, public speaking, authorities, strangers, of losing control of himself in any way;
- Specific phobias manifest the fear of certain animals, of heights, of enclosed spaces, going to the dentist, of flying, thunder, darkness, often manifesting fear of a possible encounter with the phobic object;
- Other anxiety disorders (neurosis, fear), which include: a) panic disorder is characterized by spontaneous seizures panic without any sign of fear, the sense of life threating, b) generalized anxiety disorder is seen hovering freely and indefinable fear, fear that something terrible will happen ;
- Mixed anxiety and depressive disorder;
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (obsessive neurosis) is characterized by the presence of forced thoughts and actions that patients perceived as foreign and imposed (forced imagining scary scenes, inner dialogue "for" and "against" that are endlessly repeated, constantly checking for suspected something forgotten to do, the urge to do something that is contrary to their will, endless ritual of hand washing and the like);
- A reaction to stress and adjustment disorders (acute stress reaction, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment);
- Dissociative disorders (hysteria), which is characterized by partial or complete loss of memory integrity, awareness of one's own identity, instant sensation and control of body movements;
- Somatoform disorders - conditions that mimic physical disease;
- Other neurotic disorders (neurasthenia or fatigue syndrome, a syndrome of depersonalization-de-realization).
Necessary collaboration with experts
Many of these diagnostic categories have elaborated specific variations in clinical presentation, and it is all a result of the needs of the human mind to classify and thus bring order into the "forest" of symptoms that is able to create the same mind, and so to deepen their own understanding of the functioning and creates a specific therapeutic procedures will be "free" and "disable" the mind that creates "unnecessary." If symptoms are created by our own mind signs "language" that creates the mind, which is usually accompanied by a feeling of fear and pain makes us, destroying the quality of life, sometimes a "paralyzing" effect, and the experience and awareness that we are with many events that are difficult and often hear "stronger than me", nothing really happens (the emergency room often give us just a tranquilizer), then specially trained therapist, sometimes with the help of drug therapy, his approach, creating a special relationship and context for change, to help the "language" gets a completely different meaning and loses its painful effects. So let's not be "deaf" to the "call" my own mind, "run" from doctors to doctors seeking help from different specialists, because it is a call for pursuing their own growth and development. When the doctor and found to be a neurotskoj event, usually psychosomatic type, it is not easy to refer the patient to a psychiatrist-psychotherapist, why help him and yourself. Perhaps it would be wise to immediately proceed to call a psychiatrist instead of other specialists, because we could zaštedjeti yourself time, money and health, recognizing that the greatest percentage of us suffer from functional psychosomatic disorders and to just "say" something more than the body, and that we actually a lot less sick than you think.
Branko Petris, MD. honey.
Meet the two behaviorists and one says to another: "You are good, and as I was?"
This does not include the name of a single course or school of thought. The basic division is the one between psychological - philosophical behaviorism. Psychological behaviorism is still a form I can share a few directions, each of which has its own more or less specific approach to mental phenomena. Regarding our istraživanjaa will be enough psychological behaviorism share based on the early methodological and later, radical behaviorism. Going into a new conception of theoretical behaviorism would take us too far.
Methodological behaviorism occurs at the beginning of this century as an attempt to set psychology as a scientific discipline of scientific method. John. B. Watson, the founder of this direction, strongly opposed dotadašnjoj introspective psychology methods complaining that it lacks scientific approach underlying condition - intersubjectivity, ie, objectivity, experimental testability. How to become a scientific discipline of psychology, the subject of her research should be intersubjektivan, available measurement, experiment, and fulfills these requirements only observable behavior of the individual. Behavior and control, and predict the behavior becomes the goal of psychological research. Introspection along with explanations of mental terms is not reliable or meets the basic criteria of scientific objectivity, therefore, introspection, mentalist explanations of scientific psychology does. All we need about explanation, prediction, control of human behavior is the correct theory due to external causes or stimuli and their behavioral consequences and responses (S - R, that is, the stimulus - reaction scheme). Mental states, processes, psychological explanations are unnecessary, because the behavior of individual complete causal factors specified environment.Thus, "the mind" or "spirit" is not the origin of action, as it held almost the entire Western philosophical tradition, but takes his place environment. Stance such as this does not matter if there are mental states, processes, because they have no effect in respect of action. The organism may simply be "empty box". Therefore, hence the term "methodological behaviorism" as is avoiding references to mental states and processes due to strong attempt to explain the scientific method, predictions of behavior.
All this was important to talk about the problems within the context of mind and body for the following reason. The fact is that we, as could be seen from the above dualistic thinking, we believe in the existence of "spirit" or "mind" because of the ability to exercise certain types of actions in respect of which mean some inner necessity 'power', 'medium' or 'spring' pecuniary nature . If the behavioral interpretation of these actions to be exact, that is explicable only by reference with regard to environmental factors, it will be our common-sense argument, if not logically destroyed as well, especially well studied. Stated we will still be able to tempt you from the ontological and methodological premises draw conclusions, that is, assert that mental states do not exist. This is exactly what Watson was in his later works did. How will discourage scientists from the study of consciousness, Watson began to deny its existence. Consciousness is like the belief in witches, demons, and the rest of the time the barbaric notions of prejudice, magic. Such as witches and demons are dismissed as primitive explanations of unknown events, such awareness along with other mental events must be eliminated interpretation of human (animal) behavior. This form of behaviorism has never managed to explain a large number of higher, more complex, forms of behavior just because your prekrutog understanding of scientific research; persistent opposition to any ref to the mental, conscious events that at least for now, seem necessary in the interpretation of human (and according to some people and animals) behavior.
This rigidity in the treatment of mental phenomena he tried to straighten his later works, BF Skinner, the most influential representative of radical behaviorism. Although Skinner acknowledged the reality of "inner" world, said he still was completely interdependent environmental factors, and his status is at best a epifenomenalan. Skinner says for example: "Punishment of sexual behavior and sexual behavior changes every feeling that may result from that in the best hands byproduct." (Skinner, 1991). Actual causes of our actions can be found in the environment and mental events are just the consequences, just and physical activity. Mental events are not so interesting science, behavior and psychology.
Philosophically, that is, logical or analytical behaviorism, is derived from three basic motives (a) reaction to dualism, (b) attempt to introduce neo - positivistic theory of meaning in the field of psychology, (c) the analysis of our everyday language.
Common to all these philosophical behaviorist in mental terms, in fact, indicate disposition or tendency toward a certain behavior. When an attribute mental states, for example. hunger, in fact, talking about his dispositions to certain "hungry" behavior (ie to eat when food is available). Exactly what is important here is to emphasize that this is supposedly an analytical statement. It expresses the fragility of such orientation due to the breaking of the blow, which is an analytic truth about the fragility, as reflected in the notion of what we mean fragility, so the desire for food disposition toward a certain behavior directed toward food, this is what I term expresses the desire for food . Hence the name "analytic behaviorism." Calling the analyticity here is very important because if it really is an analytic statement, the behavioral translation loses nothing of significance, or what's what any mental term, without loss of meaning remains the form of testimony behavioral dispositions.Another important thing mentalističkih translate these terms into behavioral dispositions is that every so-so. "Behavioral hypothetical court", for example. "If food is available, Ogi will eat it" does not include any mentalist terms, which of course is the goal of the whole enterprise. Antecedents hypothetical court speaks only of stimuli, and just about konsekvens behavioral responses, stimuli, responses are physical events.
What is all this, we might ask? Why translate mentalist terms of behavioral dispositions where it is not quite clear what it means to "be hungry"? CG Hempel's sight had the same goal as Watson; make the scientific discipline of psychology. As I am a supporter of neo - positivism - views according to which all problems are solvable in principle, the scientific method - tried philosophical, psychological problems can be reformulated if be scientifically analyzed. How will he do it was the starting point of the neo - positivist theory of meaning, according to which a statement is meaningful if there is a system that can determine its truth or falsity. In other words, the meaning of the terms established by the testimony of its verifiability. What has not been available to verify this principle, not only as false, but completely pointless, and should be dismissed as a mere pseudo-problem. No mental phenomenon, as a purely internal episodes available only to those who possess it, is not subject to this principle, verification, and as such is meaningless term that only cause confusion by creating pseudo problems. How to achieve the stated goal earlier fulfills the principle of verification, Hempel argued that any psychological testimony can translate statements about the physical behavior without loss of meaning or content. When we say "Ogi toothache," as we understand the meaning of this sentence, we must consider the circumstances that will make it true, or the conditions of its verification. It is clear that these conditions will be behavioral. The person you have a toothache will provide verbal statements about it, he will keep his hand in the face, it will be prone to nervous behavior, to moan, etc.. On the other hand, will show signs of tooth decay, will come a change in blood pressure, etc.. Now, if this is the translation of behavioral psychological concept of "toothache" in which there was no loss of meaning, then it means that toothache and means nothing more than the behaviors listed here. This is exactly what Hempel says. Pain is nothing but the language of abbreviations in terms of specific behaviors that subjects reported. When you understand the psychological concepts in this way will be gone and the problem of mind and body.The word "mind" is just an abbreviation for the language specific physical behavior, and is therefore pointless to ask whether there is a mind and body and the ways in which they are compared.
Another major philosophical behaviorist, Gilbert Ryle begins with an analysis of our everyday vocabulary mentalističkog will show where the possibility of reinterpretation of the way, not being understood reference some internal spiritual state, which will continue to be meaningful. The treatment of the concept of "mind" as an independent entity, according to Ryle is the result of the categorical error. For example, if you run through the woods someone who has never seen the woods and did not show him the different kinds of trees, and when he would visit after we say "well, I could see the trees, but where is the forest"? Then he will commit the mistake of kategorijanu not realize that noise is not something in addition to the trees, something more than a set of trees (of course, the forest is more than a set of trees, it is an ecological system that includes extensive flora and fauna, but it is not for our example of importance). The forest is just a linguistic category that is used as a unique designation for a set of trees. The concept of forest depletes in the set of trees, and our hiker trees already known. In other words, he is a "forest", but only saw it does not understand. Lack of understanding of language in everyday contexts may arise ontological error. Misuse of gender and abstract concepts leads us existing postulated entities which are not. This is exactly what happened to the notion of "mind" and Ryle tried to show how the word is not the name of a mysterious non-physical entity but refers to a set of skills and actions with which we are all familiar - beliefs, solve problems, desires, perceptions, etc.. Ryle, apparently, does not want to deny the existence of mental life but only stresses us having our dictionary psychologically meaningful should not lead to Cartesian dualism (which is called "dogma ghost in the machine"), postulating that non-physical entities.
Thus, for Ryle, and Hempela, mental terms do not indicate anything more than a certain assemblies, behavioral tendencies. Theories like these are corroborates our claim that mental terms gain meaning through public just physical behavior, public expressions, not through some mysterious introspective labeling.
But what about the qualitative contents of consciousness, the phenomenal side of pain. In fact we have already noted that mental events are divided about propositional attitudes as characterized by intentionality, sensation characterized by qualitative or phenomenal conscious states ("qualia"). Now the logical behaviorist or less managed to deal with propositional attitudes as the intentional content can always be translated into meaningful statements about behavioral dispositions. But as far as the various types of stimuli it is evident that behavioral speech completely bypasses their basic features, quality content. All of us except for public assemblies of conduct still feel the pain. This is exactly the worst in him. Ignoring irrelevant as the qualitative contents of consciousness are the logical behaviorist just ignore that dimension of problems in everyday life that we realize the most important. Thus, the claim that Ryle does not want to deny our mental life, in fact, empty phrase.The objection from the qualitative content of awareness is also the most logical objection grain of behaviorism. For example there are people who do not feel pain. I can think of other people's pain through behaviors that demonstrate those other people. In other words, even though they are fully aware of all the possible behaviors caused by pain, their incomplete understanding of pain, which will accelerate the understanding if the pain will feel alone.
Another complaint is that the analytical grain of behaviorism that no one has ever managed to provide a plausible analysis of a psychological concept terms of behavioral dispositions. The reason for this is the "atomistic" approach behaviorists mental states. Consider the following example: we are thirsty, but the issue do nothing - just sit still as twenty minutes when all I was thirsty. Behaviorist will respond to this as we do now, we did not thirsty, because if we did, we'll take some of these thirst quenching, we show that some forms of behavior characteristic of people who are thirsty. We really are thirsty, and the reason they do it out is that it is our laziness is stronger than our thirst, and simply do not want to lift the comfortable chairs. In addition, we believe that we will get sick if you drink a day for more than two liters of water, and we've already drank two liters of water. The point is that if you get up, drink a glass of water, we will be rightly attributed thirst. But the reverse is not true, if we stay seated this does not mean that we are not thirsty. Active experiencing psychological life (desire, belief, comfort, etc..) Which in this case does not manifest behavioral because its contents inhibited.Behaviorist can not deal with this case because his analysis is always "atomistic" and it deals with only a psychological phenomenon, and there is no way it will be from a psychological condition perform any conclusions about his behavioral dispositions because it will depend on the behavior connection between the psychological state of some other psychological conditions - different links, different behavioral responses. Association was therefore between one mental state, behavioral dispositions, but between the complex network of mental states, behavioral dispositions.
The third complaint says behavioral analysis does not actually solve any problems, not even the mind and body. Someone clever enough in devising environmental ways of speaking, and you should never use a term that refers to any mental entity, does not mean that these mental entities do not exist. The objection is to some extent at the site, but we can imagine the following example, we assume that all the inhabitants of the country to educate their children go in expressing behavioral linguistic structures that will serve all adults. When will the new generation of virtuous young people grow up, they have notions of mind or spirit that we now understand them, or for them such terms, along with the mind-body problem, when they will be one familiar with them, are in. If the same number of bizarre how many of today's bizarre theory and logical behaviourism? Examples such as this one can complain about the fact that people just develop mentalist, not a behavioral dictionary, you would need to mean something. However, such fact shall be able to explain the evolutionary advantage of not necessarily have anything to do with that if mental states really exist or not. No objection can be made stronger: it is impossible to form a generation of behavioral speakers because of the foregoing, the second objection. What is this possible and what is not, we leave the reader's personal judgment.
(Engl. = Behaviour conduct, behavior, mode)
B.Klaić in his dictionary of foreign words gives psychological definition of "behaviorism" as the - direction that draws his information from the correct observation that under a variety of conditions governing the people, especially children, and based on these observations explain mental processes.About the beginning of behaviorism as a direction we can point out 60-s of the last century, although it is in some works, thoughts and research reports, and much earlier.
Under behaviorism does not mean a single course or school of thought. We can talk about the psychological behaviorism, in the early part of it (methodology) and late (radical), a philosophical behaviorism, but also as a Behavioural learning theory.
The early, so-called. methodological behaviorism appeared in the early 20th century as an attempt to establish psychology as a scientific discipline with scientific methods. John B. Watson, the founder of this school, I was introduced into the psychology underlying scientific assumptions - objectivity, verifiability experimental, versus dotadašnjoj introspective methods of psychology. Case study psychology becomes observable behavior of individuals, and the aim of psychological research and prediction control human behavior. The assumption is that the behavior (reaction) individual completely determined by external factors ie. environment, not "mind" (spirit) as by then the entire Western philosophical tradition of thought. Hence the term "methodological behaviorism" - the starting point is not a mental state but scientifically sound explanation and prediction of behavior
Diagram: STIMULANS - RE ACTION
Watson later and completely denies the existence of consciousness, rejected the need to evaluate the mental state in the interpretation of human behavior, holding only scientific, experimentally verifiable methods. Thus far gone in so late. radical behaviorism. The most prominent representative of the radical behaviorism was BF Skinner who, in his numerous papers and given the seal of the strongest psychological direction. He believes that the real causes of behavior are in the environment, and mental events are just the consequences, just as the behavior itself (punishment changes behavior and feelings that arise from it are just a byproduct). Therefore, mental states, even though they deny it dismisses as uninteresting for the science of psychology and scientific research.
PHILOSOPHY (logical, analytical) behaviourism
And philosophically Behavioural starts from stimulus-response scheme, and rejects every mental process as the cause of behavior (if I was offered food - eat - hunger is just behavioral dispositions of behavior). Critics point to the fact here mentalist processing in terms of behavioral dispositions. This actually like to meet neo-positivist theory that all problems are solvable in principle, the scientific method - problem is formulated so that it can be scientifically processed, checked, verified. Though we will not deal with the philosophical behaviorism, it is important to mention their representatives najzjačajnije . These are the great philosophers and behavioral Gilbert Ryle CGHempel.