Tuesday, January 8, 2013

Climate change

In the 20th century the temperature has risen by 0.6 degrees Celsius. 2007th the second year was the hottest year in the history of measurement. Moreover, starting from 1990. The previously been reported as 14 warmest years in the modern era. Annual melting glaciers today is 1.6 times faster than in the nineties of the last century, and up to 6 times faster than in the eighties. Ozone in the stratosphere is reduced by 10 to 15 percent over the past six decades, and the South Pole to 60%.These are all changes that are happening with the climate lately, and indicate the existence of a problem. 

Climate is the average state of the atmosphere over a particular place at a particular period, and usually follows a period of 30 years. Determined on the basis of climatic elements: radiation, temperature, air pressure, wind speed and direction, humidity and evaporation, cloudiness and sunshine duration, precipitation and snow cover. For changes in the climate is apparently guilty man's impact, which in recent years and is increasingly proving.

The consequences of climate change

Global warming is the most visible result of climate change. Earth is warming solar radiation and emits about 70% of radiation due to the surface. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb part of this radiation, which leads to warming of the atmosphere, called greenhouse effect. Thanks to this, the Earth maintains a favorable environment for all living things. Although until recently was considered that the carbon dioxide, which is released from burning fossil fuels, the main culprit for global warming, recent studies suggest that cause the biggest yet tropospheric ozone, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and tiny particles of soot.

Global warming is causing glaciers melting rapidly. Scientists at Mount Everest to measure the point at which the ice melts shifted by 50 meters, which is twice as much as normal. Something similar is happening in Greenland, the Alps and other glaciers. Melting glaciers cause more problems, because they contain 70% of the world's fresh water, so that the melting of glaciers and reduce the amount of fresh water. Ice that is melting raises sea level, and is expected to raise the sea level by one meter by the end of 21st century, resulting in flooding of some islands and coastal areas. Thus, the problems with raising sea levels could experience that Bangladesh is situated at an level of one meter, and the Netherlands, which is already below sea level, which solves the filling, canals, pumps ...

In addition, melting glaciers reduces salinity, and hence density of the sea, which is associated with the intensity of the movement of ocean currents. This would weaken the Gulf Stream, which moves the Atlantic, resulting in more severe winters and cooler summers. Some scientists predict that the Gulf Stream could disappear, and as early as between the 2025th and the end of the century, which would be Europe and North America faced a new ice age.

Global warming and favors the spread of some diseases such as malaria and cholera, as warming expands the area in which the cause of these diseases can live. It is believed that 150 000 people a year die from the effects of climate change, and as many as 5 million become ill from diseases caused by them. According to some estimates the number to 2030. year could double, and the disease usually affecting just people of underdeveloped countries.

Changes in climate will lead to the extinction of various animal and plant species will not be able to adapt to change, and thus predicts that by 2050. The third species almost disappear. Extreme drought as a result of global warming will cause the spread of deserts, and thereby reducing the size of habitable for humans.

How to prevent climate change?

Under the United Nations Convention created a protocol, known as the Kyoto Protocol, which deals with the reduction of climate change, which came into force on 16 February 2005. when it is ratified by Russia. This agreement is determined to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases by 6 to 8 percent compared with 1990. and this year up to 2012. year. Croatia has ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 27th April 2007. year, which became his 170th Party.

To reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, scientists are calling for the use of renewable energy sources, the energy use of waste, changes in the technology industry, waste sorting, insulation of buildings, use public transport or cars that use less fuel, and afforestation.

Climate change in the past

Air in the past, the Earth has changed over time. In a sudden change of climate there was a major extinctions. Causes of climate change were different, so that the period during which the dinosaurs became extinct blame asteroid that fell to Earth and raised a cloud of dust that reduced solar radiation, leading to a low temperature.

In the Earth's past there were several ice ages, and the last one happened in the Cenozoic. During the ice age the temperature is not equal but alternating cold and warm periods, and the Serbian scientist Milutin Milankovitch watching the temperature change argued that the climate change is affecting astronomical factors. Thus, he concluded that three factors are responsible for the warming or cooling of the changes in the Earth's orbit around the Sun, which happens every 100 000 years, changes in the slope of the earth's axis to the plane of the ecliptic, which occurs in cycles of 41 000 years, and changes in the position axis to the ecliptic, in which the angle of inclination of the Earth remains the same, which is repeated every 19 000 to 23 000 years. Looking at these factors are observed regularities in the change of the ice ages in the past, but it should be emphasized that these are not the only factors that will affect climate change.

Is global warming a myth?

Scientists who oppose the Kyoto Protocol see no evidence that man caused climate change, and that these are only assumptions. Some scientists are skeptical about global warming and believe that this is just a cover that is used to control the masses. More than 400 distinguished scientists made a study showing that the data on climate change that are presented to humanity in the book of Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth", and the title of the movie exaggerated.

These scientists are skeptical that the politics of global warming convince mankind that follows a period of great privation, which will result in the prices of basic food items, which will be the gap between rich and poor will increase even more. The standard of living will fall and people will be forced to work odd jobs under poor conditions and low wages just to be able to survive, they say, and persist in saying that the issue of human influence on global warming was invented with the aim of prosperity in rich countries. Is that right, you'll only turn in the future, but you should keep an eye on ecology and preferably leave the earth in good condition for future generations, in which they all agree. 

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